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International Review of Civil Engineering - May 2010 - Papers





International Review of Civil Engineering - Papers


go to top   Estimate of Seismic Damage. Methodology and Application to Buildings Reinforced Concrete

         by A. Kahil, M. Hamizi, N. E. Hannachi

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 124-129


Abstract - During these last decades, several seisms of various intensities struck several countries and caused considerable losses in human lives and significant property damages.The forecast or the estimate of the damage is an axis of the genius parasismic which gives us information on the damages which can occur. A powerful tool often used in this field provided by the curve of capacity which describes the real behavior of the structures and the damage probable which can occur by the evaluation of the point of performance based on the iterative procedure.

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Keywords: Seisms, Nonlinear Behaviour, Curves of Capacity, PushoverAnalysis.



go to top   Seismic Financial Loss Estimation of Steel Moment Frame Buildings
         by Rajesh P. Dhakal, John B. Mander, Lucy Xu

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 130-142


Abstract - A probabilistic seismic loss assessment methodology is applied to quantify earthquake risk in terms of expected annual loss (EAL). Incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) is adopted to probabilistically assess the variability of seismic demand. A computational distribution free approach is then used to rescale the sorted IDA output data to account for other sources of randomness and uncertainty that are not accounted for in the IDA analyses. The EAL of a structure due to seismic hazards is accumulated from losses contributed by all states of structural and non-structural damage. A case study of the nine-story SAC steel moment frame building constructed to pre-Northridge (inferior, brittle) and post-Northridge (superior, ductile) standards of welding connections is presented to demonstrate the implementation of the loss estimation methodology. Results show that the total losses including the contributions of structural and non-structural components are some $15,000 and $8,000 per million dollar of asset value for pre-Northridge and post-Northridge welding details, respectively, thereby indicating that a better detailing will result in significant saving in a structure’s maintenance cost. In these, structural damage contributes about $5,000 and $2,000 per million dollar of building value for pre-Northridge and post-Northridge welding details, respectively. This indicates that the non-structural damage is a major contributor to the total loss and should not be overlooked in seismic loss estimation.

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Keywords: Performance based earthquake engineering (PBEE), expected annual loss (EAL), incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), SAC nine-story steel frame building, distribution free approach, structural damage, non-structural damage.



go to top   Pontoon Breakwaters-Efficiency and Loads Effect of Attached Plate Layout
         by E. V. Koutandos

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 143-153


Abstract - In the present study, wave interaction with a pontoon breakwater of box type with a plate attached in the front part of the structure is investigated numerically and experimentally. The large scale laboratory experiments on the interaction of regular waves with the special breakwater were conducted in the wave flume of LIM (Laboratori d'Enginyeria Marνtima) at UPC (Universitat Politθcnica de Catalunya) in Barcelona. Experimental results are compared with numerical results obtained with the use of the COBRAS (Cornell breaking Wave and Structures) wave model. The effect of the layout of the attached plate attached to the bottom of the breakwater in the front, middle and rear part, on its hydrodynamic characteristics (wave transmission, reflection, dissipation, velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, which is presented through the mean velocity fluctuation, √2k) and loads (horizontal and vertical forces) are investigated.

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Keywords: Pontoon Breakwater, Special Breakwater, Breakwater With Attached Plate, RANS Solver.



go to top   Comparison between Live Loads Specified by Various Standards
         by Sami W. Tabsh

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 154-158


Abstract -  A comparison is conducted between the live loads on building structures specified by major structural standards in North America, Europe and Southeast Asia. These include the American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE7, National Building Code of Canada Volume 1, British Standard 6399 Parts 1 and 3, Eurocode EN 1991-1-1, and the Hong Kong Building (Construction) Regulation 17. The study showed that the uniform live loads in the five considered standards were close for assembly areas with moveable seats, private rooms in hotels and hospitals, balconies for other than small family residences, and dance halls. However, there were significant differences between the standards for assembly areas with fixed seats, restaurants, operation rooms in hospitals, corridors and public areas, library stack rooms, passenger vehicles garages, and uninhabitable roofs. The study also indicated that the reduction in the live load on columns is based on the tributary area in North American standards, whereas it is based on the number of supported stories for the other considered standards. Finally, the load factors that are applied to the live load were somewhat similar among the various standards for the load combinations that do not include wind load, but were different for the load combinations that consider wind load.

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Keywords: Codes, Imposed Load, Live Load, Live Load Reduction, Load Combinations, Load Factors, Specifications, Standards.



go to top   Finite Element Simulation of Patch Repaired Reinforced Concrete Beams
         by N. N. Gerges, C. A. Issa, C. N. Younis

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 159-164


Abstract -  This paper presents information on the factors that influence the performance of patch repair in reinforced concrete beams, namely the in-service exposure conditions, compatibility requirements and construction practices. The significance of property mismatch between the repair material and the existing reinforced concrete structure is illustrated through an analytical study involving finite element analysis that determines the performance of a patch repair. The ADINA finite element software is used in this study to simulate the behavior of the four experimental beams. The beams were 1200mm long with a cross section of 100mm x 150mm with defects size of 500x100x30 mm. Three of the beams were repaired using either the same concrete material, mortar, or fast rapid material and one beam remained defective. Element types used in the models, constitutive equations and assumptions, loading and boundary conditions, and convergence criteria are thoroughly discussed in the paper. It is concluded that analytical methods could be an effective tool in the proper selection of repair material and techniques.

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Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Beam, Patch Repair, Finite Elements.



go to top   Effects of Sand of Dune and Granulated Slag on the Properties of Cement
         by K. Salhi, B .Mezghiche

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 165-169


Abstract -  Experimental investigation of the effects of partial substitution of cement by sand of dune and granulated slag {(5% sand of dune + 15% slag), (10% sand of dune + 15% slag) by weight cement } on the properties of ordinary Portland cement have been studied, setting time, compressive strength, water absorption by total immersion and permeability. The test resuIts indicate that the substitution partial of cement by sand of dune and granulated slag at (5% sand of dune+15% slag) by weight cement has increased the compressive strength, at 90 days and give comparable compressive strength to ordinary Portland cement at 28, 60 days, the water permeability which is an essential characteristic of durability of concrete to be improved with the addition of sand of dune and granulated slag. The results obtained show increase in water absorption by total immersion with increasing addition of the content of sand of dune and granulated slag and on the other hand prolong setting time of cement.

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Keywords: Granulated Slag, Sand of Dune, Setting Time, Compressive Strength, Water Absorption.



go to top   Hydric Behaviour of a Natural Composite Material: a Hemp Wool Experimental Study
         by Fouzia Achchaq, Karim Djellab, Laurent. Marmort, Hassen Beji

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 170-177


Abstract -  The study is devoted to the assessment of natural material hydric properties used for buildings insulation. Hemp wool was subjected to various hydric tests in isothermal condition. The required goal was to observe, analyze and understand its behavior. For that, two approaches were carried out for the hemp wool characterization: from a static point of view thanks to its adsorption isotherm and, from a dynamic point of view thanks to the use of the “cup test”. The results obtained by means of these techniques and thanks to the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) are then discussed. The properties such as the permeability to water vapor or still the diffusion coefficient were thus determined. So, the analysis focuses in particular on the meaning of the various coefficients obtained by these methods.

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Keywords: Hemp Wool, Permeability, Diffusion Coefficient, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy.



go to top   Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of Cement-Asphalt Mastic
         by Ming Feng Kuo, Cheng Tsung Lu, Der-Hsien Shen

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 178-184


Abstract -  The compressive and shear strength of mechanical behavior of asphalt concrete is related to resistance against plastic deformation, which reduces the rutting value. The tensile strength is related to adhesion with aggregates. As tensile strength increases, the adhesion between the mastic and aggregate increases, this is important to resisting cracking and dipping stripping. This study uses cement as a modifier for emulsified asphalt, which is mixed to form cement-asphalt mastic. As the strength of asphalt concrete is directly proportional to strength of the asphalt mastic, this study examines the mechanical strength properties of cement-asphalt mastic as a foundation for further research of cement-asphalt concrete. In this study, maximum values over 28 days of aging for various mechanical strengths of cement-asphalt mastic are 13400kPa compressive strength, 1200kPa tensile strength and 1670kPa shear strength.

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Keywords:  Cement-Asphalt Mastic, Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Shear Strength.



go to top   Correlating Water Permeability with Ultra-Sonic Pulse Velocity in Cementitious Mortars Subjected to Compressive Stress
         by M. Hoseini, V. Bindiganavile, N. Banthia

       Vol. 1. n. 2, pp. 185-192


Abstract - Water permeability and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements were carried out on hollow cylinders made of cement based mortars simultaneously subjected to compressive stress. The level of stress was varied from 0-90% of the compressive strength. The role of fibre reinforcement was investigated through polypropylene microfibres incorporated at 0.25% volume fraction. It was found that the coefficient of permeability and the pulse velocity are sensitive to a threshold stress value. Fibres delayed the onset of this threshold for both these parameters. Based on the experimental results, an empirical correlation is made between the water permeability and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Characterization, Permeability, Transport Properties, Mortar, Fibre Reinforcement.


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