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International Review of Chemical Engineering (Rapid Communications) - January 2012 (Vol. 4 N. 1) - Papers

 

 

 

   

 

 


 

 

International Review of Chemical Engineering (Rapid Communications) - Papers

 

 

go to top   A Very Fast Removal of Orange G from its Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Activated Saw Dust: Kinetic Modeling and Effect of Various Parameters
         by Jiwan Singh, Uma, Sushmita Banerjee, Yogesh Chandra Sharma

         Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 1-7

 

 

Abstract - Removal of orange G from aqueous solutions was investigated by H2SO4 activated sawdust. The saw dust was obtained from a local timber industry. Batch adsorption studies were performed to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dose for the adsorptive removal of the dye. The maximum removal efficiency obtained was 44 % at pH 2 and with a 20 min contact time for 2.5 mg L−1 initial concentration and 1g adsorbent. The kinetics of dye adsorption from aqueous solutions was also investigated. The maximum adsorption of Orange G onto activated carbon occurred at a pH value around 1.0. The kinetic adsorption data was in close agreement with pseudo-first-order than pseudo-second-order expression for the removal of Orange G onto raw and modified sawdust.

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Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Orange G, Removal, pH, Sawdust.

 


 

go to top   The Process of Non-Dimensionalization Using the Discriminated Dimensional Analysis
         by Madrid C. N., Alhama F.

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 8-15

 

Abstract - The non-dimensionalization of differential equations is a common technique that reduces the number of independent groups that take part in the solution of a problem. In this process both dependent and independent variables are referred to typical known values. In this paper, non-dimensionaliztion is carried out using discrimination, forcing spatial coordinates as well as the other vectorial quantities to be considered as independent variables. The dependent and independent variables are now made dimensionless, considering the spatial direction in which they are acting. If there are not sufficient typical known values to be used as reference quantities, new “hidden” quantities must be obtained using Buckingham -theorem in its discriminated form. The resulting dimensionless -groups are the independent (group of) variables as a function of which the solution can be formulated. Moreover, a precise physical meaning in terms of balance of quantities can be assigned to these groups. Examples of this technique are presented.

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Keywords: Discriminated Dimensional Analysis, Dimensionless Groups, Heat Conduction, Forced Convection.

 


 

go to top   Fluidization of Ultrafine Powders
         by Jaber Shabanian, Rouzbeh Jafari, Jamal Chaouki

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 16-50

 

Abstract - Due to their unique properties arising from their very small primary particle size and very large surface area per unit mass, ultrafine powders are applied in a wide range of processes and their application continues to increase. Gas fluidization is one the best techniques available for dispersing and processing these particles. However, they cannot be fluidized separately and, in fact, tend to fluidize as large sized very porous aggregates. In order to achieve a proper fluidization, appropriate assisting method is required. This contribution reviews experimental and theoretical studies on gas fluidization of ultrafine particles. It includes introduction of different forces playing role on the fluidization of these powders, phenomenological discussion on how they can be fluidized, a summary of various assisting methods and their impacts for improving the fluidization quality of these powders, a summary of different experimental methods for measuring the agglomerate size followed by different modeling approaches for the prediction of this important parameter, a brief review on different applications of these particles and their bed expansion behavior. With respect to the current and upcoming applications of ultrafine powders in industrial sectors, considerable theoretical and experimental work is left for mining new opportunities in chemical engineering on the subject of fluidization of ultrafine particles.

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Keywords: Fluidization, Fine and Ultrafine Powders, Nanoparticles.

 


 

go to top   Analysis of Liquid Flow in Resin Transfer Molding Using Progressive Injection Strategy
         by Chih-Yuan Chang

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 51-58

 

Abstract - This paper investigates the mold filling in Resin transfer molding (RTM) with progressive injection to understand the liquid mergence coming from different injection ports using flow visualization experiments. A numerical technique, body-fitted finite element method (FEM), is utilized to assist in analyzing the liquid flow and calculating other relative properties. Analyses are also performed in RTM with simultaneous injection for comparison purposes. Experimental results show that the weld mechanisms are somewhat different in both injection strategies. A mixing liquid flow along the vague weld lines occurs in the progressive injection. A comparison of the present cases indicates that the progressive injection is superior to the single port one in all respects. The progressive injection increases the filling time by 22% to 38% but reduces number of air entrapments (also known as dry spots) as compared with the simultaneous injection. Through the present cases, the weld mechanism, air entrapments and filling time under various injection strategies are evaluated.

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Keywords: Mold Filling, Multiple Port Injection, Resin Transfer Molding.

 


 

go to top   Enhanced Naphthalene Solubilization Using Two Yeast Biosurfactants
         by Juliana M. Luna, Raquel D. Rufino, Leonie A. Sarubbo

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 59-64

 

Abstract - The present study investigated the enhancement of naphthalene solubilization using two biosurfactants, namely L and R, produced by Candida sphaerica and Candida lipolytica, respectively. The results indicate that the solubilization capabilities of the biosurfactants were strongly dependent on the pH of the solution and ionic strength. The solubility of naphthalene was enhanced by the addition of the biosurfactants at concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration, reaching saturation values at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.6 g L-1 of biosurfactants L and R, respectively. Maximal solubility (5 mg L-1) was attained in a pH range between 7 and 10 in salt-free water or with salinity between 10 and 15% at the natural pH of the biosurfactants. The molar solubilization ratio for naphthalene was calculated and compared to synthetic and bacterial surfactants. These results can be used to understand and predict the solubilization properties of the biosurfactants L and R for use on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and provide valuable information for the application of these biomolecules in the remediation of contaminated organic soils.

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Keywords: Biosurfactant, Candida, Naphthalene, Solubilization.

 


 

go to top   Modeling Equilibrium Constants of Multiple Components in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems
         by Abrar Muslim

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 65-70

 

Abstract - Since thiosulfate leaching has been applied as an alternative leaching to cyanidation in gold extraction, the adsorbent of strong based anion exchange resin has been investigated for the adsorption of thiosulfate, polythionates and gold thiosulfate. Anion exchange resin simultaneously adsorbs thiosulfate, polythionates and gold thiosulfate, and each component competes one another in multiple components of non-ammoniacal resin solution systems. The aim of this work is to develop equilibrium constant models for multiple components in the systems. Experimental work were conducted to obtain equilibrium constants associated with the complex reaction in the systems, and compared the values to the ones based on the proposed model. As the modeling results, the equilibrium constant for trithionate over thiosulfate and tetrathionate over trithionate was computed to be approximately 90.739 and 1.482, respectively which was in a good agreement with the experimental result. The model-based equilibrium constant for gold thiosulfate over trithionate was obtained to be 0.469 with the correlation coefficient, R2 being 0.9874. In addition, this work also proposed a model reaction mechanism to obtain the equilibrium constant for gold thiosulfate over tetrathionate with the model-based equilibrium constant being approximately 0.317.

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Keywords: Adsorption, Equilibrium Constants, Gold Thiosulfate, Polythionates, Modeling, Resin.

 


 

go to top   Evaluation of the Catalytic Potential of the TiO2 Nanomaterials for the Abatement of H2S Gas at High Temperatures
         by N. Shahzad, S. T. Hussain, T. Maggos, M. A. Baig

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 71-75

 

Abstract - Gas phase destruction of H2S gas was studied using pure TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes in this work. Fixed bed catalyst system was used to conduct the experiments for the catalytic reduction at a high temperature of 450oC under laboratory conditions. 95.6% reduction was achieved in case of TiO2 nanotubes, but it was otherwise in the case of nanoparticles and the concentration of H2S started increasing after initial reduction. 2.67% Sulphur was adsorbed on the surface of the nanotubes. Characterization of the samples before and after the experiments were carried out using XRD, SEM, and EDX techniques , while GC-MS was used to calculate the gas reduction for gas samples.

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Keywords: Tio2, Nanoparticles, Nanotubes, H2S Gas, Catalysis, Fixed Bed Catalyst System.

 


 

go to top   A Comparison between Iron and Aluminum Electrodes on Removal of Chromium from Wastewater of Electroplating Industry by Electrocoagulation
         by Maha I. Al-Ali

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 76-83

 

Abstract - Chromium (Cr) removal from the wastewater of electroplating industry of Salahaddin Company in north of Baghdad in Iraq by electrocoagulation with iron (Fe) and aluminum electrodes (Al) was investigated. The influence of electrode material, current density, time and wastewater initial pH were studied. The efficiency of different electrode materials iron and aluminum was compared. The results showed that chromium removal increased with increasing the current density, time and pH. The results indicated that electrocoagulation with an iron electrodes pair in which chromium removal rate reached to 95.33% was more effective than with aluminum electrodes pair that the maximum removal rate reached to 78.63% at neutral acidity. The more efficient chromium removal was at current density of 5 mA.cm-2 for 30 min analytic time at pH of 3 of wastewater solution and under neutral acidity of 7 pH, with applied current of 7.5 mA.cm-2 a long 50min of time. Energy and electrode consumptions for iron and aluminum were determined as the higher values of 9.2 mg/l and 14.06 kWh/m3 and 23.43 g/l and 4.1 kg/m3, respectively. Finally, the kinetic analysis is done for the system which indicates that the adsorption system obeys the second-order kinetic model in most the experiments of this study.

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Keywords: Electrocoagulation, Iron electrode, Aluminum electrode, Electroplating, pH.

 

 

 

 

go to top   Jerusalem Artichoke and Pea Hulls Based Substrates as Raw Material for Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
         by Petya Gencheva, Georgi Dobrev, Naiden Delchev, Jordan Hristov, Viara Ivanova

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 84-90

Abstract - Jerusalem artichoke flours from tubers and stalks were subjected to jet steam pre-treatment followed by complete inulin hydrolysis. Almost all cellulose in the tubers and more than 80% in the stalks were also hydrolysed. Hydrolysed tuber and stalk flours and pre-treated mash have been found to be effective for alcoholic fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and resulted in complete consumption of the fermentable sugars in a 24 hours reaction. The conversion efficiency was 95%. Without jet steam advance treating, the cellulose only in the coarse fraction of the pea hulls flour was partially hydrolysed. After jet steam pre-treatment the hydrolysed cellulose was no more than 10%. Better results were obtained after 0.1M NaOH thermal treatment - approx. 60% of the cellulose was hydrolysed to monosaccharides, most of them fermentable. Thermal pre-treatment with 1.0M H2SO4 resulted in increase of pentose content. The sugar composition affected the alcoholic fermentation activity of the yeasts and the lag-phase augmented to 16 hours, and the entire process to 48 hours.

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Keywords: Ethanol, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Inulin, Pea Hulls, Hydrolysis, Fermentation.

 


 

go to top   Functional Copolymer/Organo-MMT Nanoarchitectures. XIII. EPDM Rubber/Poly[(MA-alt-1-octadecene)-g-PEO]/Organoclays Nanocomposites Through Reactive Extrusion
         by Mostafa A. Dilmani, Zakir M. O. Rzayev, Erdoğan Alper

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 91-104

 

Abstract - Polymer layered silicate nano-composites were prepared in melt by reactive extrusion (25:1 21 mm Rondol twin-screw compounding line) using poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-ethylidenenorbornene) terpolymer (EPDM) as a matrx polymer, PP-g-MA and poly[(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene)-g-PEO (poly(MA-alt-OD)-g-PEO) as functionalized polymer compatibilizer-internal plasticizer, octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) and dimethyldidodecyl ammonium-MMT (DMDA-MMT) as reactive and non-reactive nano-fillers, respectively. The formation of nano structural fragments, polymer blend composition–properties (thermal behavior and morphology) were studied using FTIR, XRD, TGA-DTG and DSC analysis methods. It was found that intercalation/ exfoliation degree of EPDM macromolecules significantly depends on the origin and content of organoclays.Better results were obtained for nanocomposites prepared in the presence of reactive organo-filler (ODA-MMT) and PEO grafted alternating copolymer. The results of FTIR (chemical structure) and XRD (physical structure and exfoliation degree) analyses indicate that amidization of anhydride copolymer with alkyl amine groups of organo-filler and esterification of alternating copolymer with -hydroxy--methoxy-PEO occur in melt compounding in situ processing in the chosen extrusion conditions (barrel temperature: 120, 130, 140 and 145oC, twin-screw speed around 30-40 mrp). The glass-transition (Tg), melting (Tm) and recrystallization (Tc) temperatures strongly depend on the origin and content of organoclay and PEO-grafted copolymer-compatibilizer, respectively. Thermal behavior, crystallinity and thermostability of nanocomposites were significantly improved as compared with pristine EPDM terpolymer.

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Keywords: EPDM Rubber, PP-g-MA, Alternating Copolymer, PEO, Organoclays, Reactive Extrusion, Nanocomposites.

 


 

go to top   Control of Metal Dispersion, Chemical Composition and Texture of Palladium-Zinc Catalysts on Mesoporous Titania
         by Lyudmila B. Okhlopkova, Mikhail A. Kerzhentsev, Zinfer R. Ismagilov

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 105-114

 

Abstract - Nanoparticle-doped mesoporous titania coatings were synthesized by incorporation of PdZn nanoparticles into support sol and deposition of the resulting sol on the inner surface of a fused silica capillary. This method allows controlling the chemical nature of the film, the porosity, metal dispersion and loading with an active species. The structural properties, chemical composition and morphology of the active component and the support were studied by means of TEM, EDS, ICP AES, X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption. Monodispersed PdZn bimetallic colloidal particles were prepared by polyol method in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The average particle size ranging from 1.8-4.3 nm was found to depend on the amount of PVP added and NaOH concentration. The bulk composition of nanoparticles depends on concentrations of the precursors and NaOH. The reaction mechanism is shown to involve the oxidation of ethylene glycol to mainly glyoxal and glycolic acid, while the metal Pd salts are reduced to form catalysts for Zn2+ ions reduction. Palladium-zinc-incorporated mesoporous TiO2 films were synthesized by a sol-gel method using a nonionic structure-directing agent Pluronic F127. The control of the pore size of the mesoporous titania was achieved by adding co-surfactants, such as n-butanol. The influence of the activation conditions on crystallite size and composition of metal particles was investigated.

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Keywords: PdZn Colloids, PdZn Nanoparticles, Polyol Method, Mesoporous Titania Coating.

 


 

go to top   Designing an Fuel Cell Autonomous Energy System for Residential Use
         by A. Cancela, A. Sanchez, R. Maceiras, D. Fernandez, S. Urrejola

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 115-118

 

Abstract - In this work the design of fuel cell based autonomous system for residential thermal and electric energy supplied is presented. For this, a phosphoric acid fuel cell is combined with a heat pump. The advantages of this system are to avoid grid connection and to reduce significantly greenhouse emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell supply is obtained by natural gas reforming.

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Keywords: Cells, Autonomous System, Natural Gas Reforming, Hydrogen.

 


 

go to top   Evaluation of Paper Industry Compliance with Air Quality Emissions
         by Abdulkareem A. S., Afolabi A. S., Mokoena S. N., Fungura N., Muzenda E.

          Vol. 4. n. 1, pp. 119-126

 

Abstract - Air pollution has become a serious concern throughout the world and countries are implementing measures to reduce air pollution. This study evaluated the compliance of emissions such as sulphur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide, by a paper industry. The ambient concentrations resulting from these emissions with the minimum emissions limits and ambient air quality standards stipulated by the environmental agency were also studied. Stack sampling and testing were conducted to quantify the emissions while dispersion modelling principles were used to predict ambient concentrations. It was found from the simulation of the modelling results that compliance with minimum emissions limits was very poor with regards to particulate matter and also proving to be worse when tighter limits become effective in 2016. However, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions were found to comply currently but sulphur dioxide compliance will likely drop to less than 40% when the new limit becomes effective. With regards to ambient concentrations of these pollutants, it was found that full compliance can be attained during the day but when the wind speed drops at night, to below 4 m/s, the particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide respectively, compliance with ambient air quality standards will drop.

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Keywords: Air Quality, Emissions, Nitrogen Dioxide, Particulate, Pollution, Sulphur Dioxide.

 


 
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