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International Review on Computers and Software  Vol. 7 N. 2-- Part A

International Review on Computers and Software  Vol. 7 N. 2-- Part B


go to top   International Review on Computers and Software - March  2012 (Vol. 7 N. 2) - Papers Part A




go to top   International Review on Computers and Software - March  2012 (Vol. 7 N. 2) - Papers Part B










International Review on Computers and Software - Papers- Part A


go to top   Binary Implementation of Parallel Ternary Full Adder and Subtractor
         by  Amir Safaei

          Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 495-498


Abstract - In this paper a binary design for ternary (base 3) adder and subtractor which are the main part of ternary ALU’s in optical and quantum computers is presented. The cost functions of computation in different radices are calculated and the optimum radix is selected for design. The full adder base blocks can be cascaded for parallel computations. The full subtractor is realized with the same full adder circuit. By using this fundamental approach, simulation and implementation of ternary circuits on ordinary logic devices such as discrete ICs or FPGAs are achievable.

Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Base, FPGA, Qudit, Radix, Trit, Verilog.



go to top   TSRD-RL Algorithm Based Secured Route Discovery for MANET with Improved Route Lifetime
         by S. Priyadarsini, Umashankar S.

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 499-504


Abstract - Ad hoc network is collections of wireless mobile devices with limited broadcast range and resources, and no fixed infrastructure. The critical issue for routing in mobile ad hoc network is how to discover a secured path with longest route lifetime and also with minimum node computation. The mobility nature, power constraint of the node and the security attacks of malicious nodes cause frequent path failure. This path failure causes frequent route discovery which affects both the routing protocol performance as well as the node computation overhead. So we propose an efficient Trust based Multipath Route Discovery with improved Route Lifetime algorithm to provide trust based solution for the Security attacks which affects the routing protocol performance. We implement the proposed algorithm in AODV and the performance is evaluated. Our protocol improves the network performance and reduces the computation overhead by avoiding frequent route discovery since we select secured stable multi paths with longest life time. With the help of network simulator we can prove that our proposed protocol performs better than the existing stability-based routing protocols with improved packet delivery ratio.

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Keywords: Mobile Adhoc Networks, Route Discovery, Trust based Routing, Route Lifetime.



go to top   A Computer Program for Designing Notch FIR Linear Phase Digital Filters

         by P. Zahradnik, M. Vlček

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 505-510


Abstract - A computer program for practical design of equiripple notch FIR filters is presented. The algebraic design is compared with the numerical Parks-McClellan procedure. The superiority of the presented algebraic design over the numerical procedure in terms of the available degree formula and in terms of the robustness of the design is emphasized. Two examples are included. The Matlab source code of the design is provided.

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Keywords: Computer Program, FIR Filter, Equiripple Filter, Notch Filter, Robust Design.



go to top   MeanFailureCP-SMF and StaticCP-SMF
         by Wai-San Lew, Rohaya Latip, Azizol Abdullah

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 511-517


Abstract - This paper presents the development of fault tolerant checkpointing technique in selecting the most fitting resource for task scheduling algorithm (SMF). The scope of failure considered in this experimental research comprises machine failures. The research applies Mean Failure Checkpointing algorithm (MeanFailureCP) with SMF, called MeanFailureCP-SMF. In addition, some static checkpointing interval policies are plugged in to SMF, referred to as StaticCP-SMF. The two approaches are compared on average execution time (AET) and failed jobs reduced rate (FJRR). The results show that StaticCP-SMF Policy 1 has the best result on the total AET among the other static checkpointing policies. Meanwhile, “MeanFailureCP-SMF with initial checkpointing interval at 5% job execution time” outperforms the other MeanFailureCP-SMFs. Both StaticCP-SMF Policy 1 and the optimized MeanFailureCP-SMF have decreased the total AET of SMF. For StaticCP-SMF Policy 1 the original AET is lowered by 2.4% whereas for the optimized MeanFailureCP-SMF it is decreased by 1.1%. In terms of FJRR, the overall results show that MeanFailureCP-SMF approach outperforms StaticCP-SMF approach. The lowest FJRR achieved by MeanFailureCP-SMF approach is more than 77%. It is higher than the second best result obtained by StaticCP-SMF approach which is around 71%.

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Keywords: Average Execution Time, Checkpointing, Fault Tolerance, Gridsim, Job Scheduling, Mean Failure Interval.



go to top   Energy Security Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Multi Agent System Architecture
         by  H.Mansouri, S.Benhaddou, H.Medromi

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 518-524


Abstract – Sensor network pose a number of challenges due to the limitation of their resources especially in term of energy and memory. Security protocol strives to be light-weight, in terms of code size and processing requirement, whilst retaining their usefulness in order to assist in achieving this goal. This paper presents a multi agent system architecture for energy security optimization in wireless sensor network. The main objective of this architecture is to optimize the energy consumption of battery during the call of the security mechanism. Our architecture includes three multi agent system modules, a treatment module, a wireless technology management module and a security module. The security module consists of three agents, a sensibility agent, a diagnostic agent and a coding/decoding agent. The sensibility agent interacts with the treatment module and wireless technologies management module to attribute a level of sensibility to the data which we will transmit, the diagnostic agent allows selecting the best encoding algorithm suited to our situation and to our need.

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Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Security, Cryptography, Multi Agent System.



go to top   Performance Evaluation of Microprocessor Architectures for In-Network Data Processing Wireless Sensor Networks
         by Sanam Shahla Rizvi, Tae-Sun Chung

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 525-529


Abstract – Wireless sensor network applications become essential tools for monitoring the activity and evolution of our surrounding environment. Since, the key characteristics of wireless sensor networks are to handle very sensitive real-time tasks like surveillance and target tracking, the performance of processing devices within sensor nodes highly impact the significance of overall network. Performance mainly depends on the physical architecture of any processing system. There are two well known architectures for microprocessors: von Neumann and Harvard. In this paper, we analyze, evaluate and compare the architectures to investigate the quality in terms of query optimization, power consumption and peripherals utilization in resource constraint data centric wireless sensor networks. Experimental results based on index structures like B-tree, R-tree, and MR-tree are provided and discussed to give the better idea to users for suitable in-network data processing products for their real-time systems.

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Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Real-Time Processing, Low-Power Devices, Index Structures, B-Tree, R-Tree, MR-Tree, Microprocessor Architectures, Harvard, Von Neumann, Performance Analysis.



go to top   A Flexible Advance Reservation Mechanism in High-Performance Network Computing Systems
         by  Chang-Song Liu, Peng Xiao, Dong-Bo Liu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 530-537


Abstract - Resource reservation mechanism is an effective technique to realize quality of service (QoS) guarantees for high-performance applications. However, excessive advance reservation will result in lower resource utilization and higher rejection rate on receiving new requests. In this paper, an overlapped advance reservation strategy is proposed, with aiming to mitigate the negative effects brought about by advance reservation. The strategy is based on the observation that applications tend to overestimate reservation deadline to ensure their completion. By overlapping a new reservation with an existing one, a request whose reservation requirements can not be satisfied in traditional way might be accepted. Experimental results show that the strategy can bring about remarkably higher resource utilization and lower rejection rate at the price of a slightly increasing of reservation violations.
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Keywords: Network Computing, Quality of Service, Real Time, Reservation, Resource Management.



go to top   Wavelet-Based Remote Sensing Heterogeneous Textures Signatures Using Generalized Gaussian Density Model
         by  O.Marrakchi Charfi, J. Mbainaibeye,W. Jebalia

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 538-545


Abstract - We propose a method for characterization of heterogeneous remote sensing textures according to the Generalised Gaussian Modelling (GGM) of subbands energy distributions get from dyadic Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In the framework of this application, statistics of first and second order are not appropriate to highly heterogeneous textural image with regards to the strong correlation between these latter. The proposed method is applied on both remote sensing textural images with different resolutions and different sensors capture bands. Aster-TERRA image covering a forestry zone widthspread. According to a thematically study, vegetable species living in the zone are mainly a melting of tree species with variable density cover. Radar image is acquired by SAR airborne sensor, covers a region with four different textures. From the distribution model under GGM we can extract characterizing parameters such as energy (E) or mean deviation (MD) of observed textures on several wavelet decomposition levels. Textural signatures thus elaborated were authentified according to the classification by the mean square error rule (MSE). The identification rates results show a significant added-value for SAR textures. We obtain more than 94 % of the classification rate and it reaches 100%. Also, all the Aster-TERRA textures rates are between 56% and 89%.
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Keywords: DWT, GGM, Heterogeneous Textures Signatures, Rate of Identification, SAR and Aster-TERRA Images.



go to top   An Extended Reliability Evaluation Model for Deadline-Sensitive Applications in Grids

         by Zhe Huang, Chang-Song Liu, Dong-Bo Liu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 546-552


Abstract - Reliability evaluation for large-scale grids is a complex issue when many uncertain factors such as resource heterogeneity, dynamical workload, and unpredictable user’s requirements are taken into account. In this paper, a novel workload-aware reliability evaluation model is proposed to address this problem. In the proposed model, queuing system is applied to describe the dynamic workload and working of grid resources. Meanwhile, a new type of resource fault, namely deadline-miss fault, is introduced to evaluate the reliability of real-time jobs. The validity of the proposed model and its approach to calculate real-time job’s reliability are presented theoretically. Extensive experiments are conducted to verify its performance, and the experimental results show that the proposed model can significantly improve the accuracy of reliability evaluation in presence of dynamic changing workload. Also, scheduling algorithm based on this model is able to reduce the jobs’ mean response time and the deadline-miss rate.

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Keywords: Grid Computing, Quality of Service, Real Time, Deadline Missing.



go to top   Two-Phase Resource Co-allocation Framework based on Three-side Gaming Theory in Multi-cluster Grids
         by Dong-Bo Liu, Peng Xiao

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 553-560


Abstract - Resource allocation is a fundamental service to aggregate heterogeneous and distributed resources in grid environments. Although it has been studied extensively, co-allocation under the constraints to budget and deadline still remains an opening issue, which means that tradeoff between user QoS requirements and system performance should be agreed. In this paper, a novel agent-based two-phase co-allocation is proposed, which optimizes resources deployment and price scheme through a two-phase co-allocation mechanism, and applies queuing system to model the working of resources for providing quantitative guarantee for application’s deadline requirement. Extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the model by comparing with other three co-allocation policies in terms of deadline violation rate, resource benefits and utilization. Experimental results show that the two-phase model can significantly improve the QoS satisfaction for those grid applications with constraints to budget and deadline.

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Keywords: Grid Computing, Quality of Service, Gaming Theory, Economic Computing.



go to top   Automatic Segmentation Employing Fuzzy Connectedness
         by  Jyothisha J Nair, V K Govindan

      Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 561-567


Abstract – Image segmentation is an important research topic of image processing and computer vision community since long. The variety and complexity of images and applications of segmentation make this problem a challenging and critical one. Algorithms based on fuzzy theory have found to provide improved accuracy of segmentation. Fuzzy schemes for segmentation employ fuzzy connectedness to capture the fuzziness associated with the measure of ‘hanging togetherness’. The proposed work is a fully automatic segmentation method based on fuzzy affinity and fuzzy connectedness. This uses histogram thresholding to automatically select the salient seed points of segments before applying the fuzzy connectedness algorithm. Performance of the proposed approach is compared with Fuzzy C Means (FCM) algorithm employing sensitivity, specificity and dice similarity coefficient for the cases of natural image data set and medical image data set. The proposed algorithm exhibits superior performance figures for both the data sets when compared to Fuzzy C means algorithm. It is also observed that, unlike FCM, the algorithm treats small size spots as separate regions or segments which is very important in brain image segmentation to locate lesions from the rest of the tissues. This property of the algorithm provides increased accuracy for brain image segmentation.

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Keywords: Fuzzy Connectedness, Histogram Thresholding, Segmentation.



go to top   Modelling and Evaluating a Crossbar Switched Fabric CAN Network using Stochastic and Colored Petri Nets
         by  Mohamed Mazouzi, Oussama Kallel, Salem Hasnaoui, Mohamed Abid

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 568-578


Abstract - In recent years, the demand for sophisticated embedded systems requires the use of many connected equipments. CAN buses were developed for connecting many microcontrollers which oversee many Electronic Control Units (ECU). Because of its no deterministic performance and its limited bandwidths and throughput, existing CAN-Bus has presented some problems. Switched Fabric CAN Network can be a fast and reliable hardware solution. In fact, high performance, reliability and predictability require crossbar switched fabric network. In this paper, we proposed a switched fabric CAN network Architecture based on CAN Controllers and switched fabric. This network is modeled and verified by the use of timed colored Petri nets. To extract network performance metrics, the simulation of the whole model was done using CPNTools.
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Keywords: Embedded Systems, ECU, CAN Bus, Switched Fabric CAN Network, Network Performance Evaluation, Timed Colored Petri Nets, Cpntools.



go to top   An Integrated Performance Evaluation Middleware for Virtual Resources in Cloud Environments
         by  Peng Xiao, Dongbo Liu, Peixin Qu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 579-585


Abstract - With the development of Cloud computing, more and more Cloud systems are designed and deployed to solve large-scale problem in the area of business and science engineering. However, few efforts are taken to address the issue of performance evaluation in Cloud environments. In this paper, we present an integrated performance evaluation middleware, which is aiming to provide users and researchers an easy-to-use toolkit to evaluate their Cloud system’s runtime performance, or compare the performance when different resource management policy and task scheduling algorithms are taken into account. Massive experiments are conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed system, and the results indicate that its configurable feature is very useful when users are conducting performance comparing under different conditions.
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Keywords: Cloud Computing, Performance Evaluation, Virtual Machine, Queue Theory.



go to top   A Reliable-enhanced Cloud Storage Framework for Mobile Computing Environments
         by Peng Xiao, Guofeng Yan, Dongbo Liu, Xilong Qu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 586-592


Abstract - With the development of wireless communication technology, mobile devices have played more and more important roles in the people's daily lives. However, data storage and sharing are difficult for these devices due to the data inflation and natural limitations of mobile devices, such as limited storage space and computing capability. In this paper, we present a lightweight Cloud-based storage framework, which provides an easy-to-use file navigation service for attribute-based file querying or semantic-based data retrieving. Meanwhile, it incorporates an effective mechanism for users to verify their data integrity, which can relieve much burden from mobile devices. Experimental evaluations show that the proposed framework is effective to provide flexible and reliable data sharing in mobile computing environments.

Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Cloud Computing, Distributed Storage, Mobile Computing, Multimedia.



go to top   A New Approach Based On Strokes for Printed Tifinagh Characters Recognition Using the Discriminating Path-HMM
         by M. Amrouch,Y. Es-Saady, A. Rachidi, M. El Yassa, D. Mammass

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 593-600


Abstract - This paper presents a new method for off-line printed Tifinagh characters recognition. The method is based on the discriminating path (DP-HMM) operating on a basic vocabulary that consists of various fundamental strokes. This vocabulary is generated using the intrinsic morphological characteristics of the amazigh script. Only one model is built and trained on all elements of the proposed vocabulary by structural and geometric features. Each path through this trellis represents a sequence of segments, i.e. the character of the Tifinagh alphabet. The input characters are first pre-classified into one of two character groups (circular, non-circular), and then described with their feature points and segments (arc, horizontal, vertical and diagonal). Finally, the recognition is performed by dynamically decoding the optimal path according to the criterion of maximum likelihood. The obtained scores show the robustness of the proposed approach.

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Keywords: Tifinagh Characters Recognition, DP-Hmms, Dynamic Programming.



go to top   Mobile Data Mining Based on Trajectories Clustering
         by  Zhi-hang Tang, Rong-jun Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 601-605


Abstract - To address the problem of uncertain trajectories, we suggest a candidate segments approach to uncertain clustering accuracy. This approach is based on a Hilbert curve spatial partitioning to map the trajectory points to spatial regions. Based on candidate regions of uncertain trajectories segments, we construct candidate segments to model uncertain trajectories. For the large number of candidate segments, we use a sketch-based approach in order to create hash-compressed candidate segments representations of the clusters. Based on the sketch, we show a similarity measurement algorithm of incoming uncertain trajectory to clusters. An algorithm for determining the assignment of incoming trajectory to clusters is given. Final, we verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme via experiments.
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Keywords: Mobile Data Mining, Trajectories Clustering, Spatial Partitioning.



go to top   A Novel Knowledge Discovery Approach based on Theory Architecture
         by Zhi-hang Tang, Rong-jun Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 606-611


Abstract - Monte Carlo is a method that approximately solves mathematic or physical problems by statistical sampling theory. Inspired by the Monte Carlo thinking and psychological facts, architecture of theories and appropriate knowledge acquisition and problem solving methods are advanced. Semantic gap and non-monotonic can be effectively handled with the architecture. Knowledge acquisition and problem solving can be greatly enhanced in efficiency and accuracy by implementing the architecture because of the bridging of incoherence by the theory architecture.
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Keywords: Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Representation, Theory Architecture, Monte Carlo Method.



go to top   Review on Different Components of TKIP Implemented Wireless Local Area Network
         by Salman Basiri, Zahra Ehtiatkar, Kasmiran Bin Jumari

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 612-620


Abstract - Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) was designed to fix Wired Equivalent Privacy protocol (WEP) weaknesses and work with legacy devices. TKIP introduced different components such as TKIP Sequence Counter (TSC), key hierarchy, key exchange, temporal key derivation mechanism, per packet key mixing function, Michael message integrity. TKIP has been used for several years, but vulnerabilities and attacks have been discovered in this period and it is not reliable and secure any more. Although using AES/CCMP is the secure option for WLAN, there are still a lot of devices that can not support AES/CCMP operation mode. Fixing TKIP issues and bringing security to WEP and TKIP based wireless networks is an important topic that should not be neglected. In this paper, at first, review of the TKIP components and the research activities in this area are presented. Next, the weaknesses, issues and attacks are mentioned. Finally proposed solutions are briefly described . Good understanding of previous implemented protocols, their weaknesses and limitations are necessary for designing new security protocol.

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Keywords: Wireless LAN Security, TKIP, Cryptography, Authentication, Key Management, Key Exchange, Michael Message Integrity Checking.



go to top   Parallel Modelling of Fault-Tolerant Software Systems
         by P. Kvasnica, I. Kvasnica

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 621-625

Abstract - This paper presents a method how to optimally form the structure of fault-tolerant software systems designed in line with the principle of the N-version programming approach and N-version system (NVS). The main aspect of the work presented is binarization working on the graphic card aided Graphics Processing Units (GPU), representing the issue in terms of pseudoparallel optimization. Some features of a corresponding objective function are observed. Several optimization procedures are proposed according to these features. The possibilities of applying either deterministic or stochastic procedures of the given issue are examined. The N-version application software with realized procedures is described.

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Keywords: Fault-Tolerant System, Mathematical Model, N-Version System, Pseudo-Boolean Algorithm, Optimization Problem, Random Search.



go to top   Comparison of Supervised Learning Techniques for Non-Technical Loss Detection in Power Utility        

           by Keem Siah Yap, Sieh Kiong Tiong, Jawad Nagi Johnny S.P. Koh, Farrukh Nagi

           Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 626-636

Abstract - Non technical losses (NTLs) originating from electricity theft and other customer malfeasances are a problem in the electricity supply industry. In recent times, electricity consumer dishonesty has become a universal problem faced by all power utilities. Previous work carried out for NTL detection resulted in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detection framework. The present study performs a comparative study for NTL detection using supervised machine learning techniques such as the: Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Online-sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM). Model testing is performed using historical customer consumption data for three towns within peninsular Malaysia. The detection hit-rate of all compared models is obtained from TNB Distribution (TNBD) Sdn. Bhd. for onsite customer inspection. Experimental results obtained indicate that the BPNN detection model achieves the lowest average detection hit-rate of 36.07%, while the OS-ELM model obtains a slightly higher average detection hit-rate of 51.38%. The previously proposed SVM-based NTL detection model outperforms the BPNN and OS-ELM by far with the highest average detection hit-rate of 60.75%. This indicates that the use of a SVM-based soft-margin approach results in a better generalization performance for the application of NTL detection as compared to the BPNN and OS-ELM schemes.

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Keywords: Non-technical Loss, Electricity Theft, Back-propagation Neural Network, Extreme Learning Machine, Support Vector Machine.



go to top   An Optimum Instruction Level Method for Soft Error Detection
         by  A. Abdi, S. A. Asghari, S. Pourmozaffari, H. Taheri, H. Pedram

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 637-641


Abstract - This paper presents a pure software technique that is called “Critical Block Duplication” (CBD), for detecting data errors during normal system operation. Since this method is software-based, the hardware is not reconfigured to error detection capabilities improvement in the system. CBD technique determines critical block of control flow graph based on the number of their fan outs and then duplicates the instructions and data of this block. The duplicated part of code has separate registers and variables. The results of two independent runs are compared and in case of any mismatch, an error is reported. CBD technique was applied to three popular benchmark programs and its error detection capability, performance and memory overhead are compared to a full Duplication method that is presented in [8]. Experimental results and fault injections show that CBD technique has 61% and 37% of the performance and memory overheard less than full duplication methods. The percentage of fault coverage is reduced about 28% which is acceptable in comparison with the improvement that is achieved in overheads.

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Keywords: Critical Block, Instruction Duplication, Soft Error Detection and Control Flow Graph.



go to top   Algorithms for Sorting by left inversions table
         by  Naiden B. Vasilev, Atanaska D. Bosakova - Ardenska

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 642-650


Abstract - This paper presents an algorithm for sorting by using of LIT (left inversions table). The algorithm is named LtoRA. It is made an analityc evaluation of time complexity of the proposed algorithm. It is present two approaches for acceleration of LtoRA. The proposed algorithm and its two improvements is implemented in C++. It is made experimental comparisons between LtoRA and some known algorithms and between LtoRA and its two modifications. The experiments show that LtoRA is faster than “bubble” and “bubble flag” algorithms but it is slower than algorithm “insertion sort”. The experiments also shows that for rows in which there is big number of the repetitions the modification “LtoRA – prevent repetition” is faster than the original algorithm and the modification “LtoRA – min/max comparison” and it is nearly equal to algorithm ”insertion sort”.

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Keywords: Sorting algorithm, Inversions, Insertion sort.



go to top   Driver drowsiness detection based on open eye detection with visual information
         by  M. Dehnavi, K. Izadi, M. Eshghi

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 651-656


Abstract - Driver drowsiness is one of the main factors in road accident, all over the world. In these circumstances, a driver drowsiness detection system can prevent these accidents. In this paper, we propose a rapid and robust algorithm for driver drowsiness detection based on open eye detection. The proposed algorithm has three steps as follow: first, the face, based on AdaBoost method and skin color detection in YCbCr color space, is detected in the driver's image. Second, using AdaBoost algorithm, the open eyes are detected in these faces' image. In third, based on projection and symmetry, the open eyes are verified. If an open eye is detected in the driver's image, driver eye is open, else driver eye is close. The proposed method is tested using Caltech database and our database. The results show that the proposed method has sufficient speed and accuracy.

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Keywords: eye state, pupil, iris, drowsiness, vertical projection.



go to top    Modelling and Analysis of Ultrasound B Scan Images of a Soft Biological Tissue
         by  A. Bennamane, T. Boutkedjirt

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 657-663


Abstract - The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of various parameters (transducer type, focusing, apodization), related to the imaging system used in the medical field, on the quality of the echographic images. In this objective and in the first step, a soft biological tissue mimicking phantom was simulated. It is an homogeneous and isotropic medium containing point scatters with one or more cysts. This medium is characterized by a density of 1000 kg/m3 and an ultrasonic propagation velocity of 1540 m/s. In a second step, the Field II program was used and adapted in order to achieve B mode echographic images of this phantom. Several transducer types were used. The apodization of the transducer aperture was varied as well as the focusing of the ultrasonic beam in transmission and reception. The normalized correlation coefficient between the initial image of the phantom structure considered and the reconstructed one for various configurations has been calculated. This has allowed us to evaluate quantitatively the quality of the image obtained. It can be noticed that this quality is improved by transmit receive focusing of the ultrasonic beam. By applying an apodization to the transducer aperture, the resolution of the reconstructed image became better. Furthermore, it could be possible by analyzing the images and the HF signals obtained to identify the cysts and to count and localize, with a good precision, the high echogeneous scatters. It appears through this study that an adequate choice of the mentioned parameters improves the performances of the imaging ultrasonic system used in medical environment, increases the image resolution and therefore facilitates the diagnosis.

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Keywords: Ultrasonic Propagation, Biological Tissue, Modelling, Simulation, Echographic Image.



International Review on Computers and Software - Papers- Part B



go to top   Strength Distribution and Epidemic Spreading on a Novel Weight Driven Local-World Network
         by  Si Tian, Hongwei Su, Huijia Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 664-670


Abstract – Local-world and weight driven property exists in many real-life complex networks. In this paper, a novel network model (weight driven local-world network), which incorporates the weight dynamics and the fixed local-world property, is proposed and the mechanism of weight driven local-world is explored. We have deduced the strength distribution and verified the theoretical results by simulations, with the applications for epidemic spreading theory. Due to the precise and elaborate construction mechanisms, many large real networks can be simulated by the variation of WDLW network. And there exists a series of improvements of epidemic spreading on WDLW that can be made and deserve to make further studies.
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Keywords: Scale-Free Network, Weight Driven Local-World, Strength Distributions, Epidemic Spreading, Susceptible-Infected Model.



go to top   Application of Quality Estimating Model for CNC System Software by Correlated QCs
         by  Jihong Pang, Fengping Li, Hongming Zhou, Guohua Chen, Pei Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 671-676


Abstract – In the face of intense global competition, software vendors must make ceaseless efforts to improve the quality of system software. This paper proposes a quality estimating model for computerized numerical control (CNC) system software by correlated quality characteristics (QCs) in decision-making process. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory are developed to take into account both qualitative and quantitative QCs in the evaluation of CNC system software. Determining the weights of software QCs is crucial in the evaluation stage. Thus, the AHP method is used to calculate the weights of evaluation index. Then, the quality of CNC system software is assessed based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory. Results derived from an application of CNC system software are presented to exemplify the proposed model. The proposed estimating model can be used to evaluate not only the CNC system software but also other system software.
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Keywords: Software Quality, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Fuzzy Theory, Quality Characteristics, Computerized Numerical Control System.



go to top   Multi-Document Summarization Research Based on Topic Model
         by  Yancui Li, Hongyu Feng, Kunhua Zhu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 677-682


Abstract – With the continuing growth of online text resources, Multi-Document summarization become a hot research subject. In this paper, we analyze the existing methods on automatic Multi-Document summarization and apply topic model to help sentence silence detection. We explore how to generate most silence sentence based on topic model. First, we use topic model to generate sentence topic feature. Then we give a combination model, which combines topic feature with other commonly used features for sentence extraction on Multi-Document Summarization system. Experiment on TAC2008 corpus indicates that whether a single topic feature or topic feature combined with other features, topic feature does great performance. The results show that topic feature is very important in summary generation, and the combined model is effective in Multi-Document Summarization task.
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Keywords: Multi-Document Summarization, Topic Model, Latent Dirichlet Allocation.



go to top   Calculation and Analysis of Super-Long Span Sable-Stayed Bridge Entire Mathematical Model
         by  Zhishuo Yang, Meixin Ye, Mingxia Chen, Yanqun Zhou

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 683-687


Abstract – Using 3D finite element method, the mechanical behavior of Anqing Yangtze River Railway Bridge with super-long span cable-stayed bridge is studied. The results show more than 60% of the loads acted on the deck are transferred to the lower chord joints by the lower chords beams. The main influential factors of the load transfer ratio are the ratio of the vertical stiffness of bottom chord elements to that of the floor system and the ratio of the vertical stiffness of a transversal beam in the panel to that of a transversal beam at the chord joint. The loads allocating in three trusses were divided into two steps. The first step allocating of the deck loads occurs in the lower chords of the three trusses and the allocated load ratio of the middle truss to every side truss is about 2.09 to 3.48. The second step allocating occurs in the upper chord joints by the transverse bracings and 0 to 15% of the deck loads are re-allocated from middle truss to the side trusses.
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Keywords: Finite Element Analogy, Cable-Stayed Bridge, Three Main Trusses, Three Cable Planes, Calculation and Analysis.



go to top   A Fuzzy ANP-based Approach to Information Sharing Capability Evaluation of Supply Chain Partners
         by  Zhonghua Yang

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 688-694


Abstract – With the emergence of networked organization, the information sharing capability of potential supply chain partners obtains more attention from academicians and industry personnel. Evaluation of information sharing capability is important since information sharing is necessary to horizontally integrate geographically dispersed operations. However the evaluation of information sharing capability is not easy task. (1) It involves an evaluation of multiple attributes, and moreover qualitative attributes are often accompanied by certain ambiguities and vagueness. (2) It is typical multicriteria decision-making problem. As a widely used approach, the significant limitation of Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is the assumption of independency among various criteria. In order to model the vagueness in the preferences and the improper assumption of independency among various criteria, a fuzzy Analytic network process (ANP) approach was proposed in this article. The method adopted uses triangular fuzzy numbers for pair-wise comparison and applies extent analysis to determine the weights for various attributes. An illustrative example is used to explore the application of the fuzzy ANP methodology to this problem.
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Keywords: Information Sharing Capability, Fuzzy Set, Analytical Network Process (ANP).



go to top   An Efficient Association Rule Algorithm Based on Boolean Matrix
         by  Lifeng Wang

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 695-700


Abstract – Association rule algorithm is an important content of data mining. This paper analyses the weakness of classical Apriori algorithm and some algorithms based on boolean matrix of association rule algorithm. Apriori algorithm need scan the database many times in the process of finding frequent item sets and take up a lot of space and time. There are also many studies about algorithms based on boolean matrix that have improved the Apriori algorithm by vector inner-product to find frequent item sets. But in the case of relatively too much repetitive records in transaction-sets, the algorithm can be improved forward. According to these, this paper improves boolean matrix and bring about a weighting vector inner-product algorithm based on boolean matrix to find frequent item sets. In boolean matrix, a new column is added and stores the number of repetitive records of transaction sets. The number is called the weight of vector inner-product. The algorithm deletes the repetitive records, reduces the complexity of space and time and improves the efficiency. The algorithm is effective by the experiment verification.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Apriori Algorithm, Association Rules, Vector Inner-Product, Boolean Matrix, Frequent Item Sets.



go to top   Improved Image Matching and Encryption Algorithm Based on Polar Transform and Fourier Transform
         by  Yingxi Xu, Chunling Gao, Zeyu Sun, Chuanfeng Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 701-705


Abstract – On the basis of the fundamental principle of image matching and encryption processes, this paper proposes a novel image matching and encryption algorithm, and its geometric transform algorithm by using Fourier transform and polar transform. The proposed algorithm can complete the encryption process by translating, rotating and scaling the matching parameters between input images without impairing searching accuracy. Use the fractional Fourier transform to generate sequence diversity, the image of the fractional Fourier transform, and further enhances the complexity of such algorithms and security. The algorithm can not only speed up searching process and simplify computation process, but also guarantees encryption effects by giving more accuracy to the transform between right angle rotation domain and polar panel rotation angle. The simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm guarantees the encryption effect, and enhances the confidentiality and stability of image encryption.
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Keywords: Fourier Transform, Polar Transform, Encryption Algorithm, Digital Image, Digital Chaotic.



go to top   An RST Invariant DWT-SVD based Image Watermarking Scheme
         by  Hailiang Shi, Baohui Tian

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 706-712


Abstract – To solve the problem of that image watermarking schemes are sensitive to geometric distortion attacks, this paper presents an Rotation, Scaling and Translation (RST) invariant watermarking scheme based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)-Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and logistic map. We use a visually meaningful grayscale logo image as the watermark. For watermark embedding, the host image is transformed into wavelet domain, and then the singular values of the approximation subband are modifying according to logistic map encrypted watermark, finally the watermarked image is reconstituted. The extraction is basically the inverse process of the embedding. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed scheme has a good robustness to not only the RST geometric attacks, but also some common signal processing such as additive noise, JPEG compression and etc.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Image Watermarking, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Singular Value Decomposition, Rotation Scaling Translation, Logistic Map.



go to top   Resource Optimal-selection in Complex Manufacturing Collaborative Logistics Network Based on Information Feedback
         by  Xiaofeng Xu, Jinlou Zhao, Yirui Deng

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 713-719


Abstract – According to the problems of traditional logistics resource optimization which easily cause by matching failure, the paper puts forward using orthogonal test to measure the significant effect that system factors act on setting goal. Meanwhile, in order to overcome the shortcomings and inadequacies of the priori decision model, the paper introduces multiple linear regression analysis based on orthogonal test, combines information feedback of orthogonal test to epurate complex relationship of multi-factor, and identifies functional relation between the resource optimization goal and every influence factor. The results show that: the resource optimization multivariate and linear regression which is established by combining feedback information can realize more precise of resource optimization target prediction.
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Keywords: Collaborative Logistics Network, Resource Optimization, Orthogonal Test, Multiple Regression.



go to top   BDHL: A Framework of Index System for Evaluating Ontology Content
         by  Liubo Ouyang, Beiji Zou, Jian Lin

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 720-728


Abstract – Ontology content evaluation aims at the effectiveness of concepts and relations in ontology. Currently, researches on ontology evaluation only focus on some single evaluation indexes, but an integrity framework of content evaluation index system. This paper analyzes the existing ontology evaluation indexes and measurements, designs a framework of index system of ontology content evaluation based on four dimensions, Breadth, Depth, Horizon and Longitude (BDHL). Breadth reflects the domain correlation of ontology. Depth is considered as the internal connection degree of concepts and relations in ontology. Horizon means the comparison to external attribute of various ontologies. Longitude takes account of the performance of extension and optimization by comparing with different versions of the same ontology. According to BDHL, we establish an extensible index tree by classifying and fusing the indexes to meet customized evaluation demands, lastly propose a process model for ontology content evaluation.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Ontology, Ontology Evaluation, Index System, Process Model.



go to top   Intrusion Detection Technology Based on Multiple Classifiers
         by  Guofu Yin

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 729-732


Abstract – The security of computer networks is particularly important in modern computer systems. The intrusion detection plays a strategic role in network security. In this paper an intrusion detection technology based on multiple classifiers is discussed. In the analysis methods of intrusion detection, the classifiers are generated through the iteration of AdaBoost framework. In each iteration, a classifier with a weight value is generated. Multiple classifiers will be generated when the iteration ends. Finally a classifier of high recognition rate can be obtained by weighted joint for these classifiers. This method presented in this paper overcomes the defects that the single classification algorithm is quite hard to satisfy the system requirements. It guarantees the recognition rate to attacks and meanwhile reduces the false alarm rate successfully. Using KDD99 as the experimental sample data source, the simulation results show that the proposed technique can detect attacks and send out warning alarm with a very high accuracy.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Intrusion Detection, Multiple Classifier, Computer Security.



go to top   A Study on Financing Pattern of SMEs Technological Innovation Based on Financing Risk
         by  Jingying Chen

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 733-738


Abstract – Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can not develop independently without technological innovation. Only through constant technological innovation can SMEs adapt to market demand, and develop and grow in the competition. However, in order to insure innovation smoothly carried out, SMEs should choose the proper financing means. On the basis of analysis of financing risk, the paper regards the lowest of financing risk as the goal, builds the revaluation model of financing risk through Analytic Network Process which is the basis of simulation of financing decision, and finally decides the order of financing means,. In conclusion, on the basis of self-financing, SMEs should firstly strive for government fund, take full advantage of venture capital, bank loans and joint venture, and are supplemented by private lending.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Financing Risk, Financing Pattern, Technological Innovation, SME.



go to top   Toward Information Integration Efficient XML Data Code Scheme
         by  Zhi Yang, Xia Geng

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 739-743


Abstract – In this paper, we propose an efficient XML data code scheme to improve the processing efficiency of information integration. We introduce an identification mechanism called bit pattern which indicates the information of decode. So we can directly obtain the bits of node’s layer ID through it rather than recursive way of DLN. We design the improved code scheme based on it. This code scheme has the characters of dictionary order, certainty and compression, which can meet the requirements of efficient XML code scheme. Code generation algorithms of node for static parser and dynamic update are also proposed. Finally we analyze and verify the compression performance of this code scheme by experiment. The improved code scheme we proposed has more effective compression while maintains the original advantages of the DLN. So it can adapt to the demand of information integration.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: XML Data, Bit Pattern, Compression Code, Code Algorithm.



go to top   Fast and Robust Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition Using Visual Features
         by  Lu Lou, Xin Xu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 744-748


Abstract – Traffic sign recognition (TSR) plays an important role in the navigation of modern vehicles. Detecting and recognizing traffic sign in natural road scenes is a challenging machine vision problem due to different light conditions, viewpoint changes and deformations of the traffic signs, etc. In this paper, we present an approach for the traffic sign detection and recognition in natural scenes. The developed procedure is based on color segmentation, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features extraction and Bag of Word (BoW) classification. The proposed method has the advantages of low computing power and memory efficient. The method is flexible and robust so that it can easily be modified to include new classes of traffic signs. Experimental results show that the presented approach is able to detect over 88% of traffic signs correctly under various road conditions.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Intelligent Transport Systems, Traffic Sign Recognition, Scale Invariant Feature Transform, Bag of Word.



go to top   A 3D Data Model for Large-scale Virtual Urban under Network Environment
         by  Zhengwei He

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 749-753


Abstract – The three-dimension (3D) data of virtual urban buildings are complex and diverse, and its quantity is massive. Those bring very big challenge for the management and service of 3D urban model data under network circumstance. Existing spatial data model is not suitable for large-scale 3D model data management and service on network. On the basis of analyzing the characteristic of network service about massive 3D urban model data, this paper focuses on the organization and management of spatial data and the network services strategy, and proposes a progressive network transmission schema based on the spatial resolution and the component elements of 3D building model data. Next, this paper puts forward multistage-link three-dimensional spatial data model and encoding method of spatial index based on fully level quad-tree structure. Then, an experiment system is developed using proposed theory. Experimental results have shown that the proposed 3D spatial data model can availably manage large-scale 3D urban model data and provide the network services real-timely.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: 3D model, Spatial Index, Mass Data Management, Real-time Network Service.



go to top   Integrated Optimization Modeling and Algorithm of Production Planning and Scheduling for Multistage Manufacturing System
         by  Qiaoying Dong, Jiansha Lu, Yuankun Gui

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 754-765


Abstract – The integrated complete optimization model of multistage manufacturing system based on multi-objectives and constraints was constructed to remove the separation between the serial production planning and scheduling. It is difficult to solve the integrated optimization model of multistage production planning and scheduling. The cultural algorithm based on hybrid evolutionary (CAHE) scheme is presented to solve the model. The modified discrete particle swarm optimization (MDPSO) scheme was adopted as the evolutionary operation in lower population space, and the encoding and decoding schemes were designed. The fusion, differentiation, maintenance, reference and disuse mode of genetic algorithm (GA) was employed as the evolutionary operation in the upper belief space. And this hybrid evolution scheme was embodied in the evolutionary frame of cultural algorithm. The simulation examples validate the presented model and algorithm can realize the simultaneously optimization of production planning and scheduling in multistage manufacturing system, and the presented CAHE algorithm outperforms the other two classic algorithms.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Multistage Manufacturing System, Production Planning, Scheduling, Integrated Optimization Model, Hybrid Evolutionary Scheme, Cultural Algorithm.



go to top   Competition between Manufacturer and Retailer for Price and Service Based on Multiproduct
         by  Bin Wang

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 766-772


Abstract – This research studies a case that there is a manufacturer producing two competing products and selling them through a retailer. The consumer demand depends on two factors: retail price and service level, which are provided by the retailer. This article is based on Retailer Stackelberg. Game-theoretic framework is applied to find the equilibrium solutions for every participant. Our research has conclusions as follow: first, both manufacturer and retailer have benefits form providing service; second, as market base of one product increases, manufacturer and retailer have benefits from it, and the other product also earns profit at a less amount; third, when retailer has some economic advantage in providing a product service, both manufacturer and retailer have benefits from it, although the other product damnifies the profit of retailer slightly.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Retail Pricing, Service Level, Strategic Interaction, Supply Chain Management.



go to top   Study on Performance Evaluation of Enterprise Green Manufacturing Based on Fussy Integral
         by  Bing Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 773-778


Abstract – In the background of sustainable development, green management ideal got not only more researchers’ acceptance but also more entrepreneurs’ attention recognition. Most of countries have settled their own sustainable development strategy of green economy. As an important part of national economy, the enterprise has to develop green manufacturing in time to meet green economy. Based on the connotation, content and its properties of green manufacturing, this paper structured the performance evaluation index system of enterprise green manufacturing. It also structured a performance evaluation model of enterprise green manufacturing with the method the Fussy Integral. Taking a Chinese manufacture enterprise which had developed green manufacturing as a case, the index system and model were proved scientifically and reasonably. The appliance of performance evaluation model of enterprise green manufacturing would have more effect on promoting enterprise’s green management level and product’s green competition in the world.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Green Manufacturing, Performance Evaluation, Fussy Integral.



go to top   Feature Extraction of Indirect Lighting Strike in Overhead Distribution Line Based on Improved Wavelet Entropy
         by  Haoru Li, Jikai Chen, Dan Wang, Guangzhou Hu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 779-783


Abstract – Although the low-energy indirect lighting strike is unlikely to cause the fault in the overhead distribution line, power transmission safe and power supply quality could be suffered from negative effects because of high incidence rate of lighting strike. In addition to electromagnetic interference in potential transformer (PT) and current transformer (CT) secondary circuits, the short duration and low energy level of non-faulty indirect lighting strike are another major reason, which could result in failure in detecting features of lighting strike. For the above problems, a novel method to extract the features of lighting strike in the overhead distribution line is proposed using the improved wavelet energy entropy (IWEE). After giving a general introduction to lifting-scheme -based interpolating wavelet, Tsallis entropy is researched in nonextension statistics and a discrete expression of it is also introduced. Based on wavelet decomposition and Tsallis entropy, IWEE is proposed and applied to extract features of non-faulty indirect lighting strike in the overhead distribution line. The simulation results show that Tsallis wavelet entropy, compared with tradition wavelet decomposition, is more valid to extract the features of lightning strike, estimate occurrence time of lightning strike, and indicate the oscillation attenuation.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Indirect Lighting Strike, Distribution Line, Secondary Data Mining, Wavelet Entropy, Feature Extraction, Lifting Wavelet Transform.



go to top   Effectiveness Analysis of Knowledge Competitiveness Enhancement Policies: A Case of China
         by  Yi Su, Xiaojing Liu, Baizhou Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 784-790


Abstract – This paper defines the elements of the province-based knowledge competitiveness and analyzes the strategies to enhance the competitiveness. And then, this paper builds a model to verify and measure the effectiveness of enhancement policy for the province-based knowledge competitiveness, with the help of the AHP, Granger causality test, structural equation modeling and other methods. What is more, it takes China's 31 provinces and cities in 2008 as the objects for the knowledge competitiveness empirical analysis. And finally, the findings show that: on one hand, R & D incentives, talents introduction policies and other policies take a positive part in promoting knowledge competitiveness. On the other hand, the promotion effect of R&D input policy, achievements transformation policy, talents development policy, high-tech industry development policy and new product and technology promotion policy is not notable from the statistics perspective, and the validity of these policies should be further discussed.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Knowledge Competitiveness, Structural Equation, Enhancement Policy.



go to top   A Fluid Model for TCP Flows in Large IP Networks
         by  Wengang Zhou, Leiting Chen, Shi Dong, Lubomir Bic, Mingtian Zhou

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 791-796


Abstract – This paper explores an efficient solution methodology for the network fluid model described by a set of ordinary and partial differential equations, which helps us understand in depth the network behaviors, like the average queue length, the packet loss probabilities, and the TCP source dynamics. The approach produces results with better accuracy and better prediction of the performance of the networks. In the meantime, the novel solution methodology can help us better comprehend the process of network transmission and the dynamic changes of network state, thus making us believe that the techniques proposed in this paper have a great potential in analyzing and estimating the various behavior of networks.
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Keywords: Fluid Models, Differential Equations, TCP Flows.



go to top   Test Data Compression Using XOR Operation of Test Pattern and Test Response
         by  Hailin Tan, Fugui Chen, Zhongxiao Hao

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 797-801


Abstract – Excessive test data volume in the test of integration circuits (ICs) is a serious concern for the semiconductor industry. Various dynamic test data compression schemes were proposed to address the problem. These methods, however, do not have the more room for improvement. In this paper, we apply modified version of each test pattern to circuits under test, in addition to the original test pattern. These modified test patterns do not need to be stored in automatic test equipment. We take advantage of this opportunity to achieve additional test data volume reductions. The way to modify a test pattern is to implement XOR operation with current test response. Test pattern reordering is used to improve the detection efficiency of modified test patterns further. Thus, it can significantly reduce stored input test data volume. Experimental results using Mintest test set as original test set on the ISCAS’89 benchmarks show that the proposed method reduces the size of the stored test set significantly.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Scan Testing, Test Compression, Test Pattern Reordering, Modeled Fault, Test Response.



go to top   FSK Demodulation Based on Very Small Frequency Difference
         by  Guangchun Fu, Hong Shen, Xiaomin Li

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 802-807


Abstract – In order to reduce the bandwidth, reduce the frequency difference method is often used Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). If the difference of the high and low frequency is small, the general demodulation can be very difficult to detect the correct signal. The paper uses the methods of the reducing frequency by the sampling signal. From the sampled signals, the signals of the reducing frequency are filtered by the appropriate center frequency and the bandwidth. For enhancing the difference of the frequency, it uses the multiplication frequency method. If the signals pass the n-times multiplication, the difference of frequency can increase n-times. If it can’t satisfy the demodulation, the multiplication is twice for increasing the difference. At last, theoretical and simulation show that the feasibility of the proposed method.
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Keywords: Multiplier, FSK Demodulation, Very Small Frequency Difference.



go to top   Effect Measure of Tacit Knowledge Sharing in Research Team Based on Structural Holes Theory
         by  Lu Wang, Xiaoliang Yuan

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 808-815


Abstract – Based on the measure index of social network structure (network density, structural holes and network bridge and network centrality) and the social network interaction (communication frequency, closeness, contact intensity), this thesis discusses the effect of four different sharing models, including training, absolute tutorial system, virtual network type and learning communities, on the tacit knowledge sharing of university research team which has practical, tacit and complex characteristics.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Knowledge Management, Tacit Knowledge, Research Team in University, Structural Holes.



go to top   Analysis of Correlation between Capital Stock and Energy Intensity: A Case of China
         by Xinliang Xu, Xiaoliang Yuan

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 816-821


Abstract – Based on the data from 1986-2009, this paper analyzes the capital stock and energy intensity in China as the case, conducts their Granger causality test by using statistical software, and then analyses their regression relationship. The research results show that the causal relation between the capital stock and energy intensity is neutral negative correlation, with every 1% reduction in energy intensity, the capital stock increased by 2.75%; 1% increase in capital stock, energy intensity decreased by 0.33%. Based on the quantitative analysis of the result of the study, it interprets the relation between economic growth and low-carbon economy, providing a new angle to promote the development of China's low-carbon economy.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Capital Stock, Energy Intensity, Causal Relation.



go to top   A Nonreversing FP-tree Algorithm Mining with Frequent Closed Item Sets
         by  Qing Wei, Jitao Zhao, Jingjing Song

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 822-829


Abstract – The frequent closed item set algorithm has shown its important advances by providing a minimal representation of frequent item sets without losing their support information. However, many applications showed that the efficiency of the frequent closed item set algorithm cannot meet requirements, which made it difficult to extend the application range for data. By analyzing the influence factors on the efficiency of frequent closed item set algorithm, a new algorithm –FrecisFP (Frequent Closed Item Sets FP tree) is proposed in this paper. In the improved algorithm, FP tree technology was used, it only generates constrained sub-trees consisting of three small arrays in process of mining, which is a virtual tree structure based on the originally nonreversing FP-tree, so the flaw of former algorithms is avoided. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm improved the mining efficiency by reducing the space and time consumption to a great extent.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Data Mining, Frequent Item Sets, Frequent Closed Item Sets, Nonreversing FP-Tree, Constrained Sub-Tree.



go to top   Design of an Ecological Environment Monitoring System for Nature Reserve
         by  Lei Cao, Rui Liu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 830-834


Abstract – Monitoring the ecological environment of nature reserve has great meaning due to the complicated environment, the changeable weather, and the research on ecological environment changing is important to the research of rare animal. For nature reserve ecological environment monitoring system has defective in the automation, complex process of data acquisition, and difficulty statistical analysis of data, we design a comprehensive monitoring system and information service system for the ecological environment resources. This system could manage the protection for ecological environment and meteorological monitoring. Secondly, it solved the data, communications, visualization, analysis and decision problem of integrated monitoring on environment protection area. Thirdly, it plays an important role in scientific investigation and tourism meteorological services, and has significance on protect the safety of expedition, patrolled and visitors. Through this system, it could improve the scientific and technological content of management for the nature reserve.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Environmental Monitoring, Field Meteorological Monitoring System, Nature Reserve.



go to top   An Improved Depth-First Frequent Item-Set Data Mining Algorithm
         by  Li Yang, Daiyun Weng

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 835-838


Abstract – Frequent item-set mining is the difficulty of association rule mining, and even whole data mining system. Based on analyzing the searching strategy of depth-first frequent item-set mining algorithm in detail, an improved depth-first algorithm is proposed in this paper. The idea and operation process of improvement is described in detail. The proposed improved algorithm mainly changes child node expansion order of depth-first algorithm to access optimal algorithm flow. The comparison result analysis of execution on material data set among typical breadth-first algorithm, depth-first algorithm and the proposed algorithm show that it improves operation speed and effectively reduces mining time significantly, so as to improve frequent item-set miming efficiency.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Data Mining, Frequent Item-set, Depth-First, Order Adjustment.



go to top   A Collaboration Mechanism and Manufacturing Resource Service Sharing Model for Service-manufacturing System
         by  Juan Yang, Gang Guo

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 839-844


Abstract – The rapid development of the service economy leads to investigate how the service influence or integrate into the manufacturing with the aim of achieving higher performance in the entire industry chain. However, most of studies focus on the description of the service-manufacturing system, including terms, framework, key technologies, and so on. There are many newly more complex manufacturing problems and larger scale collaborative service problems regarding the service-manufacturing system. This paper develops a kind of new business model and sharing mechanism between the manufacturing service users and manufacturing services providers in order to increase the industry chain performance. The study is supported by pipelining and parallel processing technology as a tool for analyzing the manufacturing resource service utilization. At last, we make a conclusion and put forward the future work.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Manufacturing, Service, Service-manufacturing System, Manufacturing Resource Service Sharing.



go to top   Face Detection Based on AdaBoost Algorithm with Normalized Differential Images
         by  Hongjin Zhu, Honghui Fan

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 845-849


Abstract – Face detection algorithm based on simple features trained by the AdaBoost Algorithm has been introduced by Viola and Jones. This effective algorithm made the face detection systems has a very low false positive rate. In this paper the AdaBoost Algorithm and the simple feature set were explained in a few words. And we introduced the weak classifier which can not be influenced by mutative brightness changes. A series of ten best features were identified out of a set of more than sixty thousand. These ten best features were used to classify face image and non-face image. Finally we compared the experiment results of former images, normalized images and differential images (Laplacian). And the effectiveness of the differentiation image was explained in detail.
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Keywords: Differential Image, AdaBoost Algorithm, Face Detection.



go to top   A Novel Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Network
         by Jingbo Shao, Haitao Yu, Linyang Sheng

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 850-854


Abstract – This paper presents a novel energy efficient routing protocol, NTT-DSR. Theory of energy consumption for some node is proposed. Based on the proposed theory the energy consumption for some node is determined by how many times it sends messages, on condition that nodes send and receive datagram at fixed speed. In complied with this theory, based on DSR, the proposed protocol adds some identifier to the datagram, representing the number of nodes sending messages so as to record their energy consumption. Nodes that transmit relatively more messages should be protected to keep them from being exhausted too early. Routing cost functions are designed for route selection to balance energy of the entire network. Routing participation depth factor is presented to stop the nodes with less energy from being dead to split the entire network. Experimental results comparison between NTT-DSR and DSR demonstrate that the proposed method out-performs DSR both in network longevity extension and energy saving.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Ad Hoc Network, Energy Efficient, Routing Participation Depth Factor.



go to top   Application of PSO Algorithm to Portfolio Optimization Problem with Fuzzy Returns
         by Ling Yang, Wei Chen

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 855-861


Abstract – This paper discusses the fuzzy portfolio optimization problem where the asset returns are represented by fuzzy numbers. We propose a possibilistic semi-absolute deviation model for portfolio rebalancing problem with V-shaped transaction cost which is associated with a shift from the current portfolio to an adjusted one. Due to the high computational complexity of the proposed model, we cannot employ the conventional solution methods to solve them. To overcome this difficulty, this paper employs particle swam optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve it. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed model and the efficiency of algorithm.
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Keywords: Portfolio Optimization, Transaction Costs, Particle Swam Optimization, Local Convergence.



go to top   Fault Diagnosis of Hydrogen-fueled Engine Using Lifting Wavelet Packet Transform
         by Lijun Wang, Dajia Li, Zhenzhong Yang

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 862-868


Abstract – Hydrogen-fueled engine has the characteristics of high combustion efficiency, low pollution emissions and lean burn. However, due to hydrogen burning limit width and low ignition energy, the engine is apt to early ignition and therefore the analysis of abnormal combustion is the key technology. With the advantages of the simple structure, algorithm and good computing speed, one type fault diagnosis method has been proposed based on lifting wavelet packet transform in this paper. According to the analysis of the excess air coefficient α, combining with the speed and compression ratio of hydrogen engine, the collected signals and the energy characteristics of the change are analyzed. By revealing the related degree of excess air coefficient and pressure increasing rate in different speed and compression ratio, the relationship of frequency distribution and some combustion characteristics, such as pressure increasing rate, is shown. The results show that the middle-low frequency component of lifting wavelet frequency distribution diagram is closely related to pre-ignition, which is the basis of the hydrogen-fueled engine fault diagnosis and early diagnosis of pre-ignition.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Hydrogen-Fueled Engine, Lifting Wavelet Packet Transform, Feature Vector, Abnormal Combustion.



go to top   An Efficient Real-time Traffic Flow Measurement Method Based on Surveillance Videos Processing
         by Lu Lou, Xin Xu

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 869-873


Abstract – Efficient detecting and tracking of vehicles is very important for collecting traffic flow information in Intelligent Transportation Systems. Visual based motion analysis of vehicles is an active research topic of traffic flow estimation which involves detecting, tracking and recognizing from the surveillance image sequences or videos. Efficient and robust vehicle detecting and tracking under the real complex road scene is still a challenge task. We present an efficient traffic flow detection method which firstly extracts foreground image using Bayes classification algorithm, and then detects vehicle object with background subtraction, and finally tracks multiple moving vehicles based on Kalman filter. The method features low computational load, thus meets the real-time requirements in many practical applications. We test our method with very low/high quality traffic surveillance videos and get detection accuracies ranging from 75% to 97.4%.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Traffic Flow Detection, Vehicle Detecting and Tracking, Bayes Classification Algorithm, Kalman Filter.



go to top   Simulation of Reliability Diagnosis of Supply Chain Based on CCFBSAS
         by Guohua Chen, Genbao Zhang, Jihong Pang

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 874-878


Abstract – Diagnosing reliability of supply chain based on common cause failure between supplier and supplier (abbreviated as CCFBSAS) is a complex and important problem. To identify key factors which cause the failure of supply chain, the principle of fault tree analysis and the method of Monte Carlo simulation are proposed to apply in diagnosing reliability of supply chain based on CCFBSAS. After analyzing detailed failure factors which lead to supply chain fail, its diagnostic model is established with the principle of fault tree analysis and the diagnostic algorism of key factors is studied by the method of Monte Carlo simulation, which can calculate unreliability and key importance of supply chain. Lastly, the example is presented to prove the model and the method’s feasibility and validity.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Reliability Diagnosis, Supply Chain, Common Cause Failure.



go to top   Evaluating Value Chain Management Simulation based on GEM&DEA
         by Yujing Wang

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 879-884


Abstract – It is considered that international competition is rather between value chains than products. Owing to investment risk and high cost of management decision, value chain management model is simulated. 19 primary indexes are listed. By Group Eigenvalue Method, based on 18 experts’ opinion, 7 indexes are selected into evaluation system. Value chain management of 9 shipbuilding listed companies is evaluated. By DEA, elements of value chain management simulation are distinguished. Then countermeasures for improving shipbuilding enterprise international operation value chain management are put forward.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Shipbuilding Enterprise, International Operation, Value Chain Management.



go to top   Fish Disease Image Retrieval Method Based on Color and Shape Features
         by Jian Song, Xueyan Sun

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 885-890


Abstract – In this paper, an image retrieval approach for fish disease based on shape features is put forward, which can overcome the inaccuracy of the existing fish disease diagnostician schemes that relies on text information of the diseased fish. After the fish disease image is segmented with histogram threshold method, its edges are extracted with Freeman Chain Code. The color features of fish disease images are analyzed in detail and images are preprocessed in HIS color space which is consistent with human eye vision features. The mean value, variance, K-order moment, kurtosis and energy are extracted as the retrieval eigenvalues. The shape features of fish disease image are analyzed in detail and the degrees of the five angles encircled by the fish body contour lines are extracted as shape feature values. A matrix of 4×5 formed with a fusion of color and shape features is regarded as the image retrieval characteristic. Gaussian normalization method is used for normalization processing, and the Mahalanobis distance is used for measuring the similarity degrees. C++ programming language is adopted under Visual C++6.0 development environment to develop the fish disease image retrieval system based on shape features. It is indicated by the experiment results that the retrieval method based on shape features has a fairly good recognition effect with a precision rate of 66% and a recall rate of 84%. It will greatly improve the system robustness and meet the demands of fish disease diagnosis when this algorithm is applied to the fish disease diagnostician system.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Fish Disease, Image Retrieval, Shape Features, Color Features.



go to top   Building Model-driven Decision Support System for Seasonal Broiler Growth Performance Prediction
         by Peijie Huang, Piyuan Lin, Shangwei Yan, Meiyan Xiao

         Vol. 7. n. 2, pp. 891-902


Abstract – For the modern poultry breeding companies, it is worthwhile to predict the poultry growth performance based on the massive historical data gradually cumulated in production. However, because of the complexity and uncertainty brought by the influence of environmental and physiological factors, extracting valuable knowledge from poultry raising dataset is a challenge. As a way to uncover the seasonal growth rule hidden among the broiler data, which is regulated by both the natural law of seasons and the biological law of poultry upgrowth, we suggest developing decision support system (DSS) using statistical methods and data mining technology based on the collected meteorological factors. This paper focuses on the building process of a model-driven DSS for seasonal broiler growth performance prediction. Systematic approach is deployed including data preprocessing, candidate predictor variables selection, and modeling. Prediction models including multiple linear regression and neural network are adopted for both linear and nonlinear fitting. Finally, case study of the broiler growth dataset of the most famous poultry raising company in China is used to evaluate the developed DSS and the results show the effectiveness of our approach.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Broiler Growth Performance, Decision Support System (DSS), Seasonal Influences, Model-Driven.






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