Involvement of the authors in suspected malpractice

(flowcharts granted by COPE)


1) Suspected redundant publication

1.1 In a submitted manuscript
1.2 In a published article

2) Suspected plagiarism

2.1 In a submitted manuscript
2.2 In a published article

3) Suspected fabricated data

3.1 In a submitted manuscript
3.2 In a published article

4) Changes in authorship

4.1 Corresponding author requests addition of extra author before publication
4.2 Corresponding author requests removal of author before publication
4.3 Request for addition of extra author after publication
4.4 Request for removal of author after publication
4.5 Suspected guest, ghost or gift authorship

5) Suspected undisclosed conflict of interest (CoI)

5.1 In a submitted manuscript (by a reviewer)
5.2 In a published article (by a reader)

6) Other cases

6.1 Suspected ethical problem with a submitted manuscript
6.2 suspicion that a reviewer has appropriated an author’s idea or data