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International Review of Biophysical Chemistry (I.Re.Bi.C) - August 2012 (Vol. 3 N. 4) - Papers 








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International Review of Biophysical Chemistry - Papers



go to top   Differential Action of Toxic Metal Ions on Thylakoid Membrane Lipid Peroxidation

         by Sunakar Panda

Abstract - The peroxidation of thylakoid membrane lipids is one of the major degradative processes causing drastic modification of structural and functional characteristics of the photosynthetic organell. The peroxidation process is modulated by a number of exogenous factors like light, pH, toxic metal ions etc. Three toxic metal ions namely mercury, lead and cadmium are able to modify the process of thylakoid peroxidation and lower photochemical potential. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain differential action of these metal ions on peroxidation process. The cation induced modulation has been explained in terms of binding of the cation to thylakoid surface, generation and entry of reactive oxygen species and stacking ability of the cations.

Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Lipid Peroxidation, Chloroplast, Toxic Metal Ion, Reactive Oxygen Species.



go to top   Effect of Piperine on Lipid Profile of Non-Transgenic Mice
         by J. R. Peela, F. Elshaari, F. Elshaari, M. Elfrady, S. Shakila,H. M. E. Awamy, R. Singh, A. Belkheir,

S. H. Zaidi, I. F. Barassi, R. Ramanujam

Abstract - Background: Piperine was isolated from Piper nigrum popularly known as black pepper. There were many studies earlier about piperine that it is powerful bio-enhancer for many drugs especially antibiotics. Piperine extract is believed to potentiate drugs several folds. The present study was focused on its effect individually on biochemical parameters like blood sugar and lipid profile before and after the administration of piperine.
Materials and methods: 30 non-transgenic mice, obtained from the animal house of faculty of Medicine, Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya were utilized for this study. These mice were fed with high cholesterol diet and were divided into 2 groups. 20 mice were administered Piperine with a dose of 5mg/kg body weight (Group I). Piperine was isolated in Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Garyounis University, Benghazi.10 mice were not administered piperine, but given high fat diet (Group II). These mice were anaesthetized with ketamine and halothane and blood was withdrawn from each mouse before study by cardiocentesis. Piperine was administered with high fat diet for 3 weeks for group I mice and only high fat diet given to mice belonging to group II. Blood samples were drawn again after 3 weeks from both the groups. Blood sugar, Serum, Cholesterol, Serum triglycerides and Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in the Serum using authenticated methods.
Results: Blood sugar was significantly elevated (p=0.001) after 3 weeks of administration of the piperine whereas it was decreased in groupB who were not given piperine. Serum cholesterol was significantly elevated (p=0.0025) after 3 weeks administration of piperine with high fat diet. There was no decrease in the cholesterol levels after piperine administration, when compared with that of groupB where the piperine was not administered. Serum triglycerides levels were significantly decreased (p=0.0005) after the administration of piperine but there was no significant difference in other group. HDL cholesterol was significantly elevated (p=0.0032) after administration of piperine and it was not significant (p=0.6553) in the group where no piperine was administered.
Conclusion: According to this study, the beneficial effect of piperine appears to be in lowering triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol. Further research may show promising results on HDL rise. This study does not shown the role of piperine in reducing blood sugar and total cholesterol.
Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Piperine, Non-transgenic Mice, Blood Sugar, Lipid Profile.



go to top  Regulatory and Analytical Aspects of Residual Solvents in Ayurvedic Formulations - A Recent Update
         by Munish Garg, Jyoti Solanki, Meenu Mehta, Saurabh Satija


Abstract - Residual solvents are potentially undesirable substances in herbal formulations when present above the permissible limits given by ICH guidelines in 1997 and they must be regulated properly in order to avoid their deleterious health effects. The present paper provides a recent update on the regulations for residual solvents, different Pharmacopoeial guidelines and analytical techniques available for the screening of residual solvents.

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Keywords: Analytical Techniques, Herbal Formulations, Residual Solvents.



go to top  Biodiesel Production: Biotechnological Approach
         by John A. Posada, Carlos E. Orrego, Carlos Ariel Cardona


Abstract - Fermentation is used to transform raw materials such as sugar, starch or other substrates with living cells to more complex target products such as alcohols, ketones, vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids or often achiral organic molecules. Biodiesel together with glycerol are produced by transesterification process, which can be carried out by two ways, chemically catalyzed or biocatalytically. Where, methanol from non-renewable oil is the most used raw material. Chemical catalysis has several drawbacks as fatty acid alkaline salts (soaps) generation, difficult glycerol recovering, energetically intensive process, using alkaline catalysts or elevated reaction temperatures and high reaction times using catalysis acid. Biocatalytic approach -whole-cell or enzymatic- is located at the interface between fermentation processes and petrol-based chemistry. This work reviews the biodiesel production through biocatalytic process, and analyzes the biotechnological transformation of glycerol (by product of biodiesel production) to ethanol (a potentially important raw material in biodiesel production), and other bioconversion products.

Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Biodiesel, Biocatalytic Process, Glycerol Conversion, Ethanol Bioproduction.



go to top  Enzymatic Transformation of Palm Oil in Biodiesel Using Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Immobilized on Hybrid Matrix
         by Grazielle S. Silva, Patrícia C. M. da Rós, Julio C. Santos, Victor H. Perez, Heizir F. de Castro

Abstract - Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) immobilized on a hybrid matrix (polysiloxane polyvinyl alcohol, POS-PVA) was used to catalyze the transesterification of the palm oil with different short chain alcohols (ethanol, propanol and butanol) in solvent free system. The commercial biocatalyst, Lipozyme IM20, was used for comparison. The reaction system oil/ butanol showed to be the most suitable substrate to perform the reaction with both enzymatic preparations, attaining similar yields higher than 75%. Lower yields (< 55%) were achieved for the other reaction systems, and the immobilized pancreatic lipase showed better performance than Lipozyme IM20 in all cases. Based on the potential application of PPL immobilized on POS-PVA, further experiments were performed to determine the oil/butanol molar ratio under which the formation of butyl esters and productivity are maximized.

Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Immobilized Lipase, Biodiesel, Palm Oil, Transesterification.



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