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International Review of Chemical Engineering (Rapid Communications) - November 2012 (Vol. 4 N. 6) - Papers





        Special Section on "4th CEAM 2012 - Virtual Forum"




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International Review of Chemical Engineering (Rapid Communications) - Papers


go to top   The 319 Major Industrial Accidents Since 1917
         by Efthimia K. Mihailidou, Konstantinos D. Antoniadis, Marc J. Assael


Abstract - In this paper 319 major industrial accidents are recorded according to well specified criteria. A reference for every accident is provided, so it can be further traced, and its total cost, wherever available, is converted to 2011 prices. Despite the fact that the number of major indu¬strial accidents is higher in developed countries than in developing ones, the number of deaths and injuries, is considerably less. This, most likely, is a result of better enforcement of safety regulatory legislation in developed countries. Another consequence of enforcing safety regulatory legislation is the fact that during the last two decades, the number of major industrial accidents is generally decreasing.

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Keywords: Industrial Accidents, Explosions, Fires, Past Accident Analysis, Accidents Database.



go to top   Improvement of the Energetic Performances of a Diammonium Phosphates Unit Using Exergy Balance
         by A. Dhahri, F. Chouaibi, N. Hajji


Abstract - The aim of this work is to contribute to the energy optimization of an industrial drying unit of diammonium phosphates (DAP). This unit was simulated using software ASPEN PLUS. A study of energetic performances was taken on the diammonium phosphates drying unit. Based on the results obtained, different improvements were proposed.
Several solutions were planned namely: the installation of a gas turbine, the pre-heating of the air with dryer fumes or the low pressure vapor as well as the recycling of dryer smoke. In its actual position, the unit degrades approximately 7.45 MW of energy. Its exergetic effectiveness is about 27%. The comparison between the various solutions indicated that the pre-heating of the air led to the greatest improvement of the energy performances. Indeed, this operation makes it possible to reduce the exergetic losses up to 4.84 MW. This led to an exergetic effectiveness of 46% which is definitely higher than the current value

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Keywords: Drying of the DAP, Energy Optimization, Exergetic Effectiveness.



go to top   Preparation and Characterization of Visible Light Driven Doped TiO2 Nanophotocatalyst for Photocatalytic Application
         by S. T. Hussain, Asima Siddiqa, Hira Ilyas, Bakhtiar Muhammad, Muhammad Siddique

Abstract - An ultra efficient visible nanophotocatalyst based on transition metal (silver, ruthenium and copper) and nitrogen doped titania (TiON/Ag, TiON/Cu, TiON/Ru) having homogeneous metal distribution, narrow band gap and high surface area is successfully synthesized by co precipitation method. Structural parameters (crystallanity, phase etc), distribution of dopants, optical properties, morphology, elemental composition and surface area of synthesized materials were examined by means of XRD, RBS, Raman spectroscopy, DRS, SEM, EDX and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, respectively. The visible light catalytic activity of samples was investigated for the photodegradation of auramine O, congo red and methyl yellow as model water pollutants. The synergetic effect of transition metal and nitrogen boosts up the visible light activity of modified titania nanoparticles. While, the comparative degradation behavior shows that TiON/Ru responded with extraordinary photocatalytic activity against auramine O, congo red and methyl yellow which can be predominately attributed to enhanced surface area, low band gap energy and efficient distribution of metal in TiO2 network.

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Keywords: Photocatalysis, Degradation, Doping, Titania, Percent Degradation.



go to top   Electrochemistry and Spectroscopy of an Energetic Material FOX-7. A molecular Approach to Degradation Mechanism
         by L. Simkova, J. Urban, J. Klíma, J. Ludvík

Abstract - Recently synthesized a new energetic material 2,2-dinitroethene-1,1-diamine (FOX-7) has significant potential for application due to its high performance and very low sensitivity. Generally, explosion is based on thermally initiated chain of intramolecular redox reactions. It has been found that electrochemical reduction of FOX-7 in aqueous as well as in non-aqueous solutions is also able to provoke the chain of follow-up processes leading to total decomposition of the parent substance. As intermediates radical species were proved in aprotic media. Moreover, instead of organic amines, namely gaseous products were identified after exhaustive electrochemical reduction. For these investigations various electrochemical methods both in analytical, as well as in preparative scale were utilized, together with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed understanding of the mechanism and analysis of individual reaction steps is under further study.

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Keywords: 2,2-Dinitroethene-1,1-Diamine, Degradation Mechanism, Electrochemistry, FOX-7, Spectroscopy.



go to top   Liquid-Liquid Extraction to Separate Ethanol from Synthetic Broth Using n-Amyl Alcohol and 1-Dodecanol as Solvent in Packed Column
         by Tri Widjaja, Ali Altway, Ika Purwantiningsih, Achbarida Praba


Abstract - This paper describes a search for ethanol and water separation performance and high performance solvents to be used in liquid-liquid solvent extraction of ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions by depending effective product recovery from the solvent. The present study was conducted theoretically and experimentally to analyze the performance of packed column that was expressed as %recovery of ethanol by using some solvents i.e., n-amyl alcohol and 1-dodecanol and by varyng the solvent flow rate and type of packing. The extraction process was done to support the extractive fermentation process in producing bioethanol. The theoretical approach was carried out by developing a mathematical model in determining the extraction recovery percentage. The development of mathematical model required the mass transfer coefficient in dispersed and continuous phases that were obtained from empirical correlation by Siebert and Fair (1988) and Kumar and Hartland (1999) and ethanol distribution coefficient that was obtained experimentally. The mathematical model consists of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation, which was solved numerically using Euler method under MATLAB 6.1 environment. The study used the synthetic broth (10% ethanol, 3% sugar, 87% water) entering extraction column 3 cm in diameter filled with raschig rings packing (7mm x 10 mm) and glass ball packing (6 mm) to the height of 35 cm. The flow rate of solvent was varied 10-40 cm3/s. The theoretical study has been carried out in this research concerning the extraction of ethanol from synthetic fermentation broth using organic solvent (1-dodecanol and n-amyl alcohol) in packed column. The effect of several variable such as solvent flow rate, solvent type and packing type has been explored. The circulation and oscillating drops phenomena should be considered in estimating mass transfer coefficient. The prediction results using Kumar and Hartland correlation agrees well with the experimental data with average deviation of 6.95% and 4.53% for n-amyl alcohol and 1-dodecanol system respectively using raschig rings packing. With ball packing, the deviation is 5.49% and 16.66%. This study has also obtained the ethanol equilibrium distribution coefficient of 0.909 and 0.815 for n-amyl alcohol-syntetic broth and 1-dodecanol-synthetic broth system respectively.

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Keywords: Extraction, Packed Column, Synthetic Broth, n-Amyl Alcohol, 1-Dodecanol.



go to top   Effect of Calcined Magnesite Waste as Limestone Replacement on Properties of Ceramic Wall Tiles
         by Sh. K. Amin, N. F. Youssef, M. F. Abadir

Abstract - The waste utilized in this work is the coarse fraction of magnesia (MgO) that is discarded whenever only very fine magnesia active particles are required. This relatively inactive magnesia is produced when magnesite ore (MgCO3) is over fired around 1000 °C, using a simple method onsite, in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt. It is suggested to be used as partial or total replacement of raw limestone extracted from El–Menia (Upper Egypt) used in the preparation of the basic mixture of ceramic wall tiles. The experimental program includes assessment of eight Egyptian raw materials as well as calcined magnesite waste. Four mixtures were suggested to be used as partial to total replacement of limestone by calcined magnesite waste. Both glazed and unglazed samples were prepared out of each mixture, pressed into tile form, dried and fired through a single fast firing technique. Physical, chemical, and mechanical properties were then measured and compared to both ISO and Egyptian Standards. Fired samples were also subjected to XRD and SEM in order to assess the existing phases and minerals. All the prepared mixtures showed conformity to both Egyptian and International standards of ceramic wall tiles. Although this replacement did not improve the basic mixture quality tiles, it can however be recommended for its economic, environmental and sustainable benefits.

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Keywords: Ceramic Wall Tiles, Calcined Magnesite Waste, Limestone Replacement, Single Fast Firing, Vitrification.





go to top   Structural Changes in the Preparation or Use of Desulfurant Sorbents Prepared with Ca(OH)2/Smectite/Lignosulfonates
         by M. Josefina Renedo, Josefa Fernández

Abstract - The structural modifications of desulfurant sorbents synthesized by hydration of calcium hydroxide, magnesic smectite and lignosulfonates was investigated. The aim of the work was to know if the structural properties of the raw materials suffer modifications during the preparation of the sorbents or when the sorbents are used at medium temperature. The smectite, a magnesic smectite or saponite, used as support in the sorbents preparation was subjected at different temperatures and the structural modifications were studied by X-Ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique. This last technique was also used to study the modifications of the isotherm of the support in the process of preparation of the sorbents. Results show that up to 600º C, the structure of smectite does not change and neither change in the preparation of the sorbent. Because of that these solids can be used in a desulfurization reaction at low or medium temperature.

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Keywords: Desulfurant Sorbents, Clay, Smectite, Ca(OH)2, Lignosulfonates, X_Ray, Isotherm. 



go to top   Heavy Metal Containing Industrial Wastes as Catalyst in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Alkanes
         by S. L. Herrera, D. A. Hoyos, L. A. Palacio, J. L. Pizarro, R. Aguado

Abstract - Four heavy metal containing wastes from a textile and an automotive factory have been characterized and evaluated as catalysts in the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, both in the raw dried form and after having been subjected to synthesis by the hydrothermal method, mixing industrial waste with NH4OH and recrystallizing for 24 hours at 170º C. Conversions near 20% and selectivities above 60% have been reached, which represents a good performance and supports promoting these heavy metal containing wastes as industrial catalysts.

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Keywords: Industrial Waste, Catalyst, Synthesis, Oxidative Dehydrogenation, Heavy Metals. 



go to top   Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biofuels by TGA
         by J. F. Saldarriaga, A. Pablos, R. Aguado, M. Amutio, M. Olazar

Abstract - Four types of biomass for use as biofuels were selected (pellets, shelled pine sawdust, rice and Rumex tianschanicus) and analyzed with a TA Instrument TGA Q500IF to define the three main components content (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). Runs were carried out under pyrolysis conditions and by means an algorithm implemented with Scilab tool. Therefore, the main objective was to develop a tool to determine parameters such as ash content, moisture content, amount of char, and content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin for combustion reactor from thermogravimetric analysis. This tool will be later integrated into a rigorous model that allows predicting the behavior of alternative biomass combustion plant residues.

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Keywords: Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, Thermogravimetric Analysis. 



go to top   Synergism of Microwave Irradiation and Immobilized Lipase Catalysis in Synthesis of 4,8-dimethylnon-7-en-1yl (2E)-3-phenylpro-2-enolate
         by Ganapati D. Yadav, Somnath D. Shinde

Abstract - Microwave irradiation and biocatalysis are important and rapidly developing technologies in green and sustainable engineering. The synergistic effect of microwave irradiation and lipase catalysis in transesterification of ethyl (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoate and 4,8-dimethylnon-7-en-1-ol was studied using immobilized enzymes such as Novozym 435, Lipase AYS amino, Lipozyme RMIM and Lipozyme TL IM. Novozym 435 was the best catalyst amongst studied. The effects of various parameters affecting the conversion and initial rates of transesterification were studied to establish kinetics and mechanism. There is synergism between enzyme catalysis and microwave irradiation, an increase in initial rates up to 2.3-fold was observed under microwave irradiation than that under conventional heating. With a substrate concentration of 0.03333 kmol/m3 of ethyl (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoate and 0.06667 kmol/m3 of 4,8-dimethylnon-7-en-1-ol in n-heptane, Novozym 435 offered a conversion of 94 % at 333 K in 21600 s. The analysis of initial rate data and progress curve data showed that the reaction obeys ternary complex ordered bi–bi mechanism with inhibition by 4,8-dimethylnon-7-en-1-ol. The theoretical predictions and experimental data match very well. These studies were also extended to other alcohols viz, n-butanol, n-pentanol, (3Z)-4,8-dimethylnon-3,7-dien-1-ol, benzyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, glycidol and 1,4-butanediol.

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Keywords: Kinetics, Lipase Catalysis, Microwave Irradiation, Ternary Complex Ordered bi-bi Mechanism. 



go to top   A Facile Solvent-Free Skraup Cyclization Reaction for Synthesis of 2, 2, 4-trimethyl-1, 2-dihydroquinoline
         by Ganapati D. Yadav, Rahul P. Kumbhar, Saumydeep Helder

Abstract - An optimized and efficient process has been found to synthesize 2, 2, 4-Trimethyl-1, 2-dihydroquinoline from an acid- catalyzed Skraup Cyclization of acetone and aniline. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane functionalized with sulfonic acid group [POSS-SO3H] used as an acid catalyst, synthesized by self-assembly of silane precursor was used. Different characterization of POSS-SO3H using TPD, SEM, XRD, TGA and FT-IR was carried out. The comparative study of the effect of reaction parameters such as speed of agitation, mole ratio, catalyst loading and temperature was analyzed to obtain maximum conversion.

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Keywords: Solid Acid Catalyst, POSS, Skraup Cyclization, 2, 2, 4-Trimethyl-1, 2-Dihydroquinoline, Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson Mechanism. 



go to top   Solid Acid Catalyzed Solventless Highly Selective, Effective and Reusable Method for Synthesis of 1, 4-dioxanol
Using Glycerol and Cyclohexanone

         by Ganapati D. Yadav, Akhilesh R. Yadav

Abstract - Selective transformation of glycerol into value added products remains a challenging task due to its polyfunctional nature. Acetalization of glycerol to 5-membered [1, 3] dioxan-4-yl)-methanol was efficiently catalyzed by cesium doped dodecatungstophosphoric acid supported on clay K10. 100% selectivity toward desired product was achieved. The influence of solid-liquid mass transfer resistance and absence of the intra-particle diffusion resistance was calculated to ascertain the kinetic aspect of the reaction. The effect of various parameters such as speed of agitation, catalyst loading, mole ratio and temperature on selectivity and conversion of glycerol was investigated in detail. Suitable kinetic model was developed and reaction was found to follow pseudo first order regime with energy of activation 11.64kcal/mol. Catalyst was found to be active and reusability was studied up to four runs. The result clearly shows effectiveness of catalyst for selective synthesis of [1, 3] dioxan-4-yl)-methanol for an environmentally benign process.

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Keywords: Acetalization, Solid Acids, Selectivity, Cyclic Acetal, Pseudo First Order. 



go to top   Optimisation of Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) Production by Bacillus velezensis NRRL B – 23189 in Liquid fermentation With Molasses
as the Carbon Source Without Addition of Glutamic Acid

         by Luana P. Moraes, Ranulfo M. Alegre, Priscila N. Brito

Abstract - Poly (γ-glutamic acid), also known as γ-PGA, is an extracellular polymer produced by microbial fermentation. It is water-soluble, edible, biodegradable, non-toxic towards humans and the environment, and it has many available sites for drug conjugation and a powerful ability to solubilise hydrophobic molecules. This work reports the application of molasses, citric acid and ammonium sulphate in the fermentation by Bacillus velezensis NRRL-23189 to produce γ-PGA and the detection of molasses consumption without the use of glutamic acid as a nutrient. Different concentrations of molasses, citric acid and ammonium sulphate were studied. The fermentation was agitated at 200 rpm at 27ºC for 72 h, with an initial pH of 6.5 (NaOH 2N and HCl 2N). Spectrophotometric analyses were used to measure concentrations of γ-PGA and the residual sugar from molasses degradation. The maximum production of γ-PGA was 4.82 g/l, in a medium with molasses (200g/l), citric acid (12.5g/l) and ammonium sulphate (8g/l) in a fermentation that also resulted in the maximum sugar consumption.

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Keywords: Bacillus, Molasses, Poly (γ-Glutamic Acid), Fermentation, Biosynthesis, Nutritional Requirements.



go to top   Technology and Engineering of Biodiesel Production: a Comparative Study between Microalgae and Other
Non-Photosynthetic Oleaginous Microbes

         by Abu Yousuf, Mozammel Hoque, M. Asraful Jahan, Domenico Pirozzi

Abstract - Microbial lipids are considered as a promising and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production due to their fatty acid composition similar to that of vegetable oils. So far, microalgae have attracted more attention as a lipid producer in comparison to other non-photosynthetic oleaginous microbes. Nevertheless, recent studies showed the efficiency of other microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, molds which are able to accumulate lipids over 20 % of their dry biomass. Competence of lipid production by those photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic microbes are highly depend on the cost of reactor design, wide range of nutritional substrates, scalability, parasitic energy demand, metabolic function etc. Therefore, integration of biology and engineering is essential for a cost-effective production of microbial lipids. This paper compares microalgae and non-photosynthetic microbes as regards the factors affecting the techno-economical feasibility of the microbial oil production.

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Keywords: Microbial Lipids, Microalgae, Yeasts, Moulds, Biodiesel. 



go to top   Numerical Simulation of Oxygen Diffusion Problems with Moving Oxidation Fronts by Network Method
         by J. F. Sánchez, F. Alhama, J. A. Moreno

Abstract - In present paper, it is studied a moving oxidation front on unbounded domains. Only planar diffusion of oxygen through the Metal Matrix Composites, SiC/Ti-15-3, will be considered. Numerical solution is carried out by using the network method whose application follows two steps: To design a network model from the finite-difference differential equations derived by spatial discretization of the governing equations (times remains as a continuous variable) and to simulate it in a suitable code such as Pspice. By this moving-boundary problem each volume element requires the implementation of electrical switches to confine the phenomena involve in the oxidation front.

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Keywords: Moving Oxidation Front, Titanium, Network Method, Pspice Code.



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