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International Review of PHYSICS - October 2012 (Vol. 6 N. 5) - Papers







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International Review of PHYSICS - Papers

go to top   Optical Modelling and Characterization of TiO2 Antireflection Coatings Elaborated by APCVD for Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
        by D. Hocine, M. S. Belkaid, M. Pasquinelli, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, A. Moreau

Abstract - This paper presents an efficient and less expensive method to fabricate high quality titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films by APCVD technique using TiCl4 as precursor for application as antireflection coatings on monocrystalline silicon solar cells with the aim to reduce the front surface reflection losses. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the produced coatings were successfully characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Four Point Probe (FPP) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) combined with Transmission Spectroscopy, respectively. A perfect agreement between the AFM results and ellipsometric results was confirmed. For ellipsometry modelling process, the TiO2 optical constants were successfully modelled by means of the "Multilayer Structure Model" which offers the best results. The accuracy of our model is validated by an excellent agreement reached between the calculated values derived from our model and the experimental values. The modelling method can thus, be very useful for researchers who require accurate model for optical simulation and characterization of TiO2 antireflection coatings. The measured average optical transmittance of the TiO2 layers was about 85-90%. The refractive index of our TiO2 thin films was found to be n = 2.25 at the wavelength λ = 550 nm, with a thickness of 56.2 nm.

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Keywords: APCVD, Titanium Dioxide, Ellipsometry, Modelling, AFM, Optical Properties, Solar Cell.



go to top   Theoretical Calculation of Energy Absorption Buildup Factor for Human Skin and Eye Lens Tissues
        by Ali A. Alzubadi


Abstract - The gamma ray energy absorption build up factor for selected human tissues, skin and eye lens have been calculated using Geometrical Progression method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV as well as up to a penetration depth of 40 mean free path (mfp). The generated energy absorption buildup factor data have been studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. From the obtained results it has been found that the energy absorption buildup factor changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and penetration depth. This change results from the dominance of different interaction processes in different energy regions. Buildup factors determined in the present work should be useful in radiation dosimetry, diagnostics and therapy.

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Keywords: Theoretical Build Up Factor, GP Fitting Parameters.



go to top   Optimized Structures for Methyl-Butadiene Group Molecules: Using B3LYP Density Functional Theory
        by Noor A. Nama, Hamid I. Aboud, Nahida B. Hassan, Huda B. Hassan, Mohammed J.Mohammed

Abstract - The electronic properties of CH3 radical - cyclobutadiene molecules group have been studied using B3LYP/6-31G** density functional theory. In all studied molecules, the energy gaps have been found smaller than that for cyclobutadiene. The ionization potentials and chemical potentials for the new molecules are also less than that for the original molecule. Present work supplies new data about the IR spectra for these molecules.
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Keywords: DFT, Ionization Potential, Electron Affinity, Energy Gap And IR Spectrum.



go to top   Characterization of CdS Thin Films Grown by Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Using Different S/Cd Ratios
        by Sundus M. A. Al-Dujayli


Abstract - The structure, grain size, surface morphology and optical properties of pyrolysis deposited (SP) cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films under the effect of variation of S/Cd ratio was studied. The as-deposited CdS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectrophotometer, which showed that all the CdS films have hexagonal structure. The grain size of CdS films was found to be minimum for Cd50S25 and maximum for Cd25S50. All revealed that the transition is direct with band gap energy values between 2.40-2.45 eV. The optical constants, such as refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), real (ε1) and imaginary (ε2) parts of dielectric constant of the films were calculated for these films. The fluorescence spectra displayed two main emission peaks corresponding to the green and red emissions of CdS.

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Keywords: CdS, Energy Band Gap, Optical Constant, Spray Pyrolysis, Thin Film.



go to top   A Study of Corrosion Potential of the Nigerian Coastal Plain Sands Using Numerical Corrosivity Scale
        by U. F. Evans, N. U. Asamudo, J. Wansah, S. K. Okore


Abstract - The study is aimed at investigating the corrosion condition of the soil hosting the carbon steel pipeline at Ikot Abasi – Eket route. The geomaterials were randomly collected from four sites along the pipeline right-of-way at 1.2m. Laboratory analyses of five parameters (resistivity, moisture level, pH, sulfide and redox potential) were conducted, the results were weighted using the American Water Works Association (AWWA C105) 10 points’ numerical scale. Also, soil chloride ion content, temperature and soil type were analyzed for the soil samples. The sum of the weighted index showed the presence of corrosion, hence, the binary number 1 was assigned.

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Keywords: Exfoliation Corrosion, Ecosystem, Geomaterials, Resistivity And Microbial.



go to top   Six Representations of Dirac Equation
        by Jian Qi Shen


Abstract - There are two well known representations (Dirac standard representation and Weyl representation) of Dirac equation. We suggest that, in addition to these representations, there are some extra representations that also deserve consideration. We show that the Dirac equation has at least six simple representations. The relations (unitary transformations) among these representations as well as the relativistic-covariant Dirac equations in all these representations are given in this paper.

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Keywords: Dirac Equation, Representations, Unitary Transformations.



go to top   New Similarity Measures of Fuzzy Sets and Its Applications to Image Processing
        by Mohamed A. El-Sayed, Saleh Omran


Abstract - Similarity and dissimilarity measures for measuring the similarity between fuzzy sets is of great importance in the fields of face recognitions, image retrieval, pattern recognition segmentation, registration, feature extraction, database searching, tracking through monitors, and identification of objects in a scene. This paper proposes new classes of the similarity measures of fuzzy sets based on the Lp metric (Minkowski distance). The new classes of the proposed similarity measures are consider as a combinations of Lp metrics for 1≤p≤4. The proposed new measures help in combining the results of many similarity measures to get better evaluation of the similarity between fuzzy sets. In this paper, an approach utilizing proposed new classes of the similarity measures. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by using examples from the real-world and synthetic images. The performance evaluation of the proposed technique in terms of the quality of the results are presented. Experimental results show that the new similarity measures proposed are more reasonable and accurat than the previous when apply to some fields of image processing.

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Keywords: Fuzzy Sets, Similarity Measures, Image Processing.



go to top   Laser Gain Calculations of the Excited Ion Mn XV
        by W. O. Younis, SH. Allam,Th. M. El-Sherbini


Abstract - Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation, de-excitation and total depopulation of the excited ion Mn XV of the sodium isoelectronic sequence are calculated according to the analytical formulas of Vriens and Smeets. A simple modification has been made by substituting effective quantum numbers in Vriens formulas to be applicable for the ions under consideration. The energy levels and transition probabilities have been calculated using Hibbert's configuration interaction computer package (CIV3). Level population densities are then calculated by solving the coupled rate equations involving the 19 levels 1s22s22p6nl, where n=3,4,5 and l=0,1,2,3. Positive gain coefficients are displayed for the transitions 2p65p (2P1/2) → 2p64d (2D3/2), 2p65p (2P3/2) →2p64d (2D3/2), 2p65p (2P3/2) → 2p64d (2D5/2), 2p65p (2P1/2)→2p65s (2S1/2) and 2p65p (2P3/2) → 2p65s (2S1/2) at three selected electron temperatures namely 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 the ionization potential of each ion respectively.

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Keywords: Rate coefficients, Level populations, Laser gain.



go to top   Simple Solution of the Radial Schrödinger Equation with Periodic Potential of Arbitrary Form
        by H. H. Erbil


Abstract - Previously, the general solution of the radial Schrödinger equation with an arbitrary form was calculated by a simple method without making any approach to wave functions. Now, in this article, the results are applied to calculate the wave functions and energy values of the periodic central potentials of any form. It has been given a few periodic potentials which are used generally in solid state physics.

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Keywords: Condensed Matter Physics, Quantum Models, Periodic Potential, Radial Schrödinger Equation, Solid State Physic, Spherical Symmetric Potentials.



go to top   Intensive Asteroid Exploration
        by R. J. Slobodrian, C. Rioux


Abstract - An exploration programme based on minirobotic techniques is described. A mother spaceship would transport a load of “minilanders” close to the asteroid belt and direct them to asteroids. Some 100 such minilanders with miniprobes and minirobots could be transported by a single spaceship. Each would have its own propulsion and guidance system, as well as remote contact with the mother ship. They would anchor on asteroids and measure physical and composition data to be relayed to the mother ship, which could return to Earth’s orbit. Typical asteroids may contain metals worth twenty gigadollars that could be mined in situ using solar power. Some asteroids consist of a single valuable element. Transport could be done using solar sails towards Earth or to a lunar location for utilization. Asteroids should also provide excellent platforms for low gravity research with automated experiments at levels of nano and pico gravity well below those of the International Space station or of drop towers, simulating genuine processes in deep space.

Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Asteroids, intensive exploration, exploitation, nano-gravity, pico-gravity.



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