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International Review on
Modelling and Simulations
December 2013
(Vol. 6 N. 6)

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     Part A - Part B

    A Comparative Analysis of THD Simulation in an Asymmetric Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

    by J. Loranca, J. Aguayo, A. Claudio, L. G. Vela, R. A. Vargas, J. Arau, M. Rodríguez


    Abstract - When a multilevel inverter has to be operated, question raises on which modulation strategy to choose in order to have lower harmonic content in the output voltage waveform. Multilevel inverters have been a subject of great interest in the field of power electronics because they present a set of properties that make them more efficient than conventional ones. The purpose of this paper is to verify and compare through simulation the output voltage total harmonic distortion and weighted total harmonic distortion employing low and high frequency and hybrid modulation techniques in an asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter, using binary DC bus voltage progression. All modulation strategies mentioned before were analyzed in the asymmetric multilevel inverter to verify which one is the most suitable for this type of structure using the two most powerful simulation software in power electronics field, such as PSIM and Matlab-Simulink.

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    Keywords: ACMLI, Binary Progression, FFT, Hybrid Modulation, Multicarrier PWM Strategy, Selective Harmonic Elimination, THD, WTHD.


    An Innovative Isolated Bidirectional Soft-Switched Battery Charger for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    by Seyyedmilad Ebrahimi, Farid Khazaeli, Farzad Tahami, Hashem Oraee


    Abstract - Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles could be connected to the electrical grid to be recharged. To ease the charging process, one solution could use an on-board charger to charge the electric vehicle battery. This charger should be able to be connected to a conventional outlet for convenience reasons and moreover, it should be a grid friendly charger in order not to pollute the electrical network. Since most of the electric vehicle related projects are at their initial phases, keeping up with the pace and developing new technologies and proposing innovations and concepts will help growing the industry. In this regard, a new integrated bidirectional isolated soft-switched plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery charger has been proposed in this paper, which utilizes a phase-shift controlled dual bridge series resonant DC/DC converter. Finally, the performance of the proposed charger has been investigated and verified in PSIM software environment.

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    Keywords: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Integrated Bidirectional Soft-Switched Isolated Battery Charger, PFC, Dual Bridge Series Resonant Converter.


    Performance Evaluation of Multicarrier SPWM Techniques for Single Phase Seven Level Cascaded Embedded Z-Source Inverter

    by T. Sengolrajan, B. Shanthi, S. P. Natarajan


    Abstract - This paper inquires the performance evaluation of various Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation techniques with Sinusoidal reference for single phase seven level cascaded Embedded Z-Source inverter designed with embedded DC sources which are connected with LC impedance network in between the input side and the inverter circuit. The Cascaded Embedded Z-Source inverter enhances the fundamental output voltages and reduces the %THD. Performance factors such as %THD, VRMS where measured and CF, DF of output voltage are calculated for different modulation indices. The results are compared. The simulation results indicate that the use of Embedded Z-Source in CMLI boost 40% of the total output voltage. PODPWM technique provides low THD and COPWM technique is found to perform better since it provides relatively higher fundamental VRMS output voltage.

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    Keywords: EZSI, CMLI, PWM, PD, POD, APOD, VF, CO.


    Adaptive Neural Network with Heuristic Learning Rule for Series Active Power Filter

    by Behzad Ghazanfarpour, Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi, Norman Mariun


    Abstract - A new design for controller of series active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The goal of the proposed system is to compensate voltage harmonics in power distribution system. The proposed control system utilizes adaptive neural network with heuristic learning approach. The present voltage harmonics on the supply side are estimated and extracted by the neural network based controller. Moreover, the heuristic learning rule optimizes learning rate value of the neural network that results in an accurate estimation of harmonic components and a very fast response time of the APF. Operating performance of the designed three-phase series APF was evaluated by MATLAB-Simulink tool environment. The simulation works were conducted to examine the APF’s abilities under low voltage distribution conditions. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of the proposed series APF in reduction of harmonic distortion in the supply voltage with an overall initial THD of 87% down to 3.3% and can adapt quickly to variations of distortions in system operating conditions.

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    Keywords: Series Active Power Filter, Heuristic Learning Rule, Harmonic, Neural Network, Power Quality.


    Two Stage KY Converter Voltage Ripple Reduction and Load Regulation by Neuro Fuzzy Controller

    by K. Balaji, S. Karthikumar, K. Suresh Manic


    Abstract - Two stage KY converter is a recent invention by K. I. Hwu and Y. T. Yau in the field of non- isolated DC-DC boost converter. This converter produces low output voltage ripple than the conventional converters. In this article an Neuro Fuzzy controller is designed for controlling the converter to yield very low output voltage ripple with fast load transient response and rapid settling time. The results of proposed Neuro Fuzzy controlled two stage KY converter with the digital simulation by Matlab/Simulink® shows reduction in voltage ripple from 200 milli Volts of the existing Fuzzy controlled system to 1.5 milli Volts by the proposed Neuro Fuzzy controlled two stage KY converter. Further the settling time is achieved very fast along with rapid load transient response of the proposed controller which exhibits the load regulation of the proposed system.

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    Keywords: Neuro Fuzzy Control, KY Converter, Boost Converter, Output Voltage Ripple Reduction, Load Regulation.


    Mitigation of Harmonics in Matrix Converter System Using Anfis Controller

    by S. Chinnaiya, S. U. Prabha


    Abstract - Matrix converter allows the direct ac/ac power conversion without dc energy storage links, in this paper matrix converter and its working principles with harmonics in input side is analyzed. A model is proposed to represent the matrix converter, power semiconductors are modeled as ideal bidirectional switches and the Matrix converter is controlled using ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) combined with optimum Venturini modulation method. This paper deals the method to be utilized to eliminate the harmonics which is present in input side of matrix converter. Simulation for matrix converter system which shows the effectiveness of proposed compensation scheme is discussed with MATLAB simulation results.

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    Keywords: Matrix Converter, ANFIS, AC – AC Converter.


    Islanding Detection Method without Non-Detection Zone based on Usage of Single Parameter (ISDET) Calculated from Voltages

    by H. Laaksonen


    Abstract - In this paper new single parameter (ISDET) based islanding detection method for distributed generation units is presented. In calculation of this single parameter average of voltage total harmonic distortion of all phase-to-phase voltages as well as voltage zero, negative and positive sequence component magnitudes will be utilized. Proposed new method is able to detect islanding very fast and selectively also near perfect power balance situations. In addition, the proposed algorithm is applicable to both directly and converter connected distributed generation units and the performance of the algorithm is not significantly affected by the level of voltage unbalance before islanding.

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    Keywords: Distributed Generation, Islanding Detection, Loss-of-mains protection, Anti-islanding, Islanding, Smart Grids.


    Effects of Wind Turbine Power Curve in Wind Speed Prediction Errors

    by Diogo L. Faria, Rui Castro


    Abstract - Wind power is the fastest growing renewable energy technology and nowadays is becoming a significant component of the energy mix. It is largely recognized that the use and importance of the wind power is much dependent on the ability to accurately predict the wind in advance. Statistical ARMA models are relatively simple and inexpensive forecasting tools. They do not require a huge amount of historical data and they improve the performance of the simplistic reference models. The performance evaluation indexes of the forecasting models are based in the conventional and widely used prediction error, which is defined as the difference between the measured wind speed at a certain time and the predicted wind speed for the same time. Usually, the computation of these errors does not take into account the highly non-linear relationship between wind speed and wind power. This is an important issue, since wind speed prediction is performed with a view to wind power production estimation, as far as power systems related studies are concerned. In this paper, the influence of wind power curve incorporation in the calculation of wind speed forecasting errors is discussed. Furthermore, the work performed in the scope of this paper confirms that ARMA models can improve significantly the performance of reference models, especially when the forecasting time horizon is enlarged.

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    Keywords: Wind Speed Forecast, ARMA Models, Wind Power Curve.


    Observations on Locational Marginal Price in a Double Auction Deregulated Power System

    by Arunachalam S. Abdullah Khan M.


    Abstract - In a deregulated power system double-side auction mechanism is most effective for market clearing and settlement of primary transaction and is used in many countries. Market Clearing Price (MCP) and Market Clearing Quantity (MCQ) are obtained by the intersection of aggregated supply offer curve and aggregated demand bid curve. To take the effect of transmission loss, congestion and to efficiently use both the transmission grid and generation resources by providing correct economic signals, a Locational Marginal Price (LMP) was developed and can be obtained using AC OPF or DC OPF model. The current practice is to use the DC OPF model and Linear Programming solution to obtain the LMP values. When there is no congestion in the network this paper proposes a method to obtain the LMP for a double auction market with transmission loss without actually carrying out OPF but by using the corrected aggregated supply offer curve and corrected aggregated demand bid curve. This paper also uses a modification factor for normalizing location specific prices, offers or bids to any reference location. Using this modification factor a flexible way to arrive at an equivalent location specific price using the first rejected offer or bid price or any price in between the bid – offer gap is proposed. In most discussions available in the literature the demand is fixed and not price responsive but in this paper all the discussions on generalized pricing rule to calculate LMP are with respect to the price responsive demands and by using the well known PJM five bus test system.

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    Keywords: Market Clearing Price, Locational Marginal Pricing, Deregulated Power System, Transmission Loss.


    Improvement of Power Quality in Distribution System Using Fuzzy - Unit Vector Controller

    by T. Guna Sekar, R. Anita


    Abstract - This paper presents a new technique for enhancing power quality by reducing harmonics in the neutral conductor. The 3P4W (Three-Phase Four-Wire) system is commonly used in the distribution system, where single and three phase loads are connected to the PCC (Point of Common Coupling). Due to this loads, system become unbalance and current will flow in the neutral conductor. If loads are non-linear, then the harmonic content of current will flow in neutral along with the fundamental component. The neutral current that may flow towards transformer neutral point is compensated by using a series active filter. In order to reduce the harmonic content, the series active filter is connected in series with the neutral conductor. In this paper, a hybrid model control which consists of unit vector and fuzzy logic based controller is used to reduce the harmonic content in the neutral conductor. The simulation is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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    Keywords: Neutral Current, Series Active Filter, Total Harmonic Distortion, Fuzzy Logic.


    Evaluation of the Sympathetic Interaction Between Three 150MVA Power Transformers During Energizing the Third Transformer in Shahr-e-Kord 400/63kV Substation

    by Behzad Sedaghat, Hamed Mehrvarz, Mehdi Jalali Mashayekhi


    Abstract - When a transformer is switched on in a power system network containing other transformers, sympathetic inrush current phenomenon occurs. Shahr-e-Kord 400/63kV substation had two 150MVA power transformer in the past. During the extension of the substation another 150MVA power transformer is paralleled with the other ones. One of the main concerns in energizing new power transformer is the sympathetic inrush current in the two other transformers. In this paper, the inrush current of the new transformer will be analyzed, then the phenomenon of sympathetic inrush current in two other transformers will be investigated. Details of the system components modeling are outlined. In this study Unified Magnetic Equivalent Circuit is applied to model the power transformer. System components are implemented in EMTDC/PSCAD software. Simulations are executed for "Shahr-e-Kord 400/63kV substation" during substation design period. The results of simulations are analyzed and discussed in detail.

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    Keywords: Transformer, Sympathetic Interaction, Substation, Inrush Current, Simulation.


    A Novel Performance Index for Placement of Distributed Generation in Distribution System

    by D. Sattianadan, M. Sudhakaran, S. Vidyasagar, K. Vijayakumar


    Abstract - This paper proposes a Novel Performance Index (NPI) for sizing and the placement of Distribution Generation (DG) in Distributiion System. This Novel Performance Index extracts the Technical benfits of DG like real power loss reduction, reactive power loss reduction and voltage profile improvement without giving much burden on the system. The proposed algorithm is tested on 33bus Radial Distribution System (RDS) for various load modelling. It is found that NPI gives better results compared to Voltage Stability Index (VSI) or Power Stability Index (PSI).

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    Keywords: Distributed Generation, Voltage Stability Index, Power Stability Index, Radial Distribution System.


    An Adaptive Hysteresis Band Current Controller Based DSTATCOM for Enhancement of Power Quality with Various Load

    by J. Ramesh, T. Aruldoss Albert Victoire


    Abstract - The Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) is used for development of power quality in power distribution network with various loads such as linear, nonlinear and variable load. The dc link capacitor voltage is directly affected by any alteration made in the load. Proper operation of DSTATCOM requires maintenance of capacitor voltage within the limits. Right from the beginning, conventional controller has been used to maintain the converter dc-link capacitor voltage. In spite of it, the transient response of the PI and Hysteresis controller is still slow. In this paper, an adaptive hysteresis band current controller is proposed for DSTATCOM to eliminate harmonics and compensate the reactive power of three-phase converter. The adaptive hysteresis band current controller is varied from the hysteresis bandwidth with respect to modulation frequency, source voltage, dc link voltage and slope of the reference compensator current wave. Mathematical expressions are given to design the adaptive hysteresis band current controller to achieve the fast transient response. The results of simulation study of the proposed method have been carried out using MATLAB simulation software.

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    Keywords: An Adaptive Hysteresis Band Current Controller, Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM), Power Quality (PQ), Voltage-Source Inverter (VSI), Unbalanced and Variable Load.


    A Multi-Objective Contingency Constrained Optimal Power Flow based on Composite Security Index Using Genetic Algorithm and Newton Method

    by R. Sunitha, R. Sreerama Kumar, Abraham T. Mathew


    Abstract - Market economic constraints in the deregulated environment may force the power system to operate closer to its security limits there by decreasing the overall security margins. Efforts are needed to check the security before a set of transactions is accepted and to take preventive or corrective control actions as soon as these are deemed insufficient. This paper proposes a multi-objective contingency constrained optimal power flow to enhance the system security as well as to ensure the economic operation of the system. In order to reduce the high dimensionality of contingency constrained optimal power flow, only the critical contingencies are identified with the help of the developed composite security index and the corresponding constraints are used for the problem formulation. The composite security index which is a function of both power flow and bus voltage limit violations gives an accurate differentiation between the secure and non-secure states of the power system. Weight based Genetic algorithm is used as the optimization tool and the results obtained are validated using the conventional Newton method of optimization. The effectiveness of the method is tested on a practical Indian utility 62 bus system.

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    Keywords: Power System Security Assessment, Composite Security Index, Contingency Constrained Optimal Power Flow, Genetic Algorithm, Newton Method Of Optimization.


    Voltage Constrained Maximum Loadability Analysis in Power System Using FACTS

    by A. Anbarasan, M. Y. Sanavullah, S. Ramesh


    Abstract - In this paper, voltage stability constrained maximum loadability of power system is analyzed. Whenever load on the system is increased, then bus voltage will decrease due to insufficient reactive power. But for proper operation of electrical equipment, voltage must be maintained within the permissible voltage limit. This is achieved by including FACTS device in weak bus. The main objective of the paper is to keep the bus voltages within the acceptable limit, when it subjected to load change and find the suitable location of FACTS with the maximum loadability condition. The IEEE 14-bus test system is used for analysis.

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    Keywords: Voltage Stability, FACTS, STATCOM, SVC, CPF.


    Non-Iterative Optimization Algorithm Based D-STATCOM for Power Quality Enhancement

    by S. Premalatha, Subhransu Sekhar Dash, J. Arun Venkatesh, N. K. Rayaguru


    Abstract - In this paper a single step calculation of Non-Iterative Optimization Algorithm for Distributed Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) is designed for the enhancement of power quality. Power Quality issues such as voltage sag, voltage swell and harmonics are being solved in this paper. By the estimation of the conductance factors and using the power demand to be constant and the limits for the harmonics as constraints in the algorithm is developed. The main objective of the proposed algorithm is to optimally determine the conductance factor to maximize the supply-side power factor based on conditions to predefined source current total harmonic distortion (THD) limits as inequality constraint and average power balance as equality constraint. The proposed algorithm optimally determines the conductance factors to maximize the supply-side power factor based on average power balance as equality constraint to compensate for voltage sag and swell. A single step calculation using conductance factor is done to obtain the reference using the proposed algorithm. The reference current generated by using the Non-Iterative Optimization Algorithm is used to control the voltage source converter of D-STATCOM for power quality enhancement.

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    Keywords: Distributed Static Compensator (D-STATCOM), Non-Iterative Optimization Algorithm, Voltage Sag, Voltage Swell, Harmonics, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).


    PV Supported DVR and D-STATCOM for Mitigating Power Quality Issues

    by S. Premalatha, Subhransu Sekhar Dash, D. Sunitha R. Mohanasundaram


    Abstract - Power Quality is one of the important concerns in present modern world. Power Quality is any abnormal behavior on a power system arising in the form of Voltage and/or current, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. The power quality problems and its major impact on sensitive loads are well known. To solve these problems, custom power devices are used. Some of the custom power devices are Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM), and Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC). In this paper a three phase four wire system is proposed to regulate the load terminal voltage during voltage sag, swell, unbalance harmonics present at the point of common coupling (PCC) is compensated. Photo Voltaic (PV) is used as DC source for the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). Unit Vector Template Generation (UVTG) is used for the generation of reference voltages. Hysteresis controller is used to generate pulse signal for the VSI of DVR and D-STATCOM. These voltages, when injected in a distribution line by a series and shunt transformer can regulate the voltage at the load terminals against any power quality problem present in the source side or at pcc point. The proposed control scheme is simple to design. Simulation results are carried out by MATLAB /Simulink to verify the performance of the proposed method.

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    Keywords: Dynamic Voltage Restorer, Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator, Voltage Source Inverter, Photo Voltaic, Unit Vector Template Generation.


    Open and Short Circuit Diagnosis of a VSI Fed Three Phase Induction Motor Drive Using Fuzzy Logic Technique

    by K. Mohanraj, S. Paramasivam, Subhranshu Sekhar Dash, A. F. Zobaa


    Abstract - Diagnosing the faults in an induction motor drive has always been a challenging task for the engineers in recent industrial applications. Usually current monitoring techniques are applied to detect various types of induction motor faults. Park’s vectors derived from the stator currents are used for diagnosing faults between the three phase voltage source inverter and the induction motor. In this paper, the fuzzy logic approach with park’s vectors is employed for diagnosing faults such as double line open circuit fault and double line short circuit fault which occur in voltage source inverter fed induction motor. The simulation for faults diagnosis is carried out for 4 KW Induction motor using MATLAB software and the results are discussed.

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    Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Park’s Vector, Induction Motor, Open Circuit, Short Circuit .


    A Comparative Study of IP, Fuzzy Logic and Sliding Mode Controllers in a Speed Vector Control of Induction Motor

    by A. Bennassar, A. Abbou, M. Akherraz, M. Barara


    Abstract - This paper presents a comparative study of an indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of induction motor (IM) using integral-proportional (IP), fuzzy logic (FLC) and sliding mode (SMC) controllers for speed regulation. The traditional integral-proportional controller is sensitive to the load torque disturbances. To overcome this problem, a fuzzy logic and sliding mode controllers replace IP controller are proposed. The effectiveness of the IP, fuzzy logic and sliding mode controllers was tested under different conditions such as reference speed and load torque disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controllers are better robust than the traditional IP controller.

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    Keywords: Traditional IP Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Sliding Mode Controller, Indirect Field Oriented Control, Induction Motor.


    PI and Fuzzy Hysteresis Current Controlled Inverter for PMSM based EVs Drives

    by F. Grouz, L. Sbita


    Abstract - This paper presents a modified hysteresis current control using fuzzy tuned PI current control technique for field oriented control (IFOC) of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based Electrical vehicle (EV) drives. In fact, a comparative study of three IFOC drives of PMSM using different current control schemes: the first with conventional hysteresis current control, the second with conventional PI-hysteresis current control and the third with fuzzy tuning PI- hysteresis current control. The simulation was carried out using these current control techniques to study the performance of the PMSM drive. This study proves the high current and torque ripple reduction of the fuzzy tuning PI-hysteresis current control technique comparing to the others current control techniques.

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    Keywords: PMSM, EV Drives, IFOC, Fuzzy, Tuning, PI Controller, Hysteresis Current Controller, Torque Ripple .


    Use of the Short Time Fourier Transform for Induction Motor Broken Bars Detection

    by Fethi A. Aimer, Ahmed H. Boudinar, Azeddine Bendiabdellah


    Abstract - Recent advances in the field of power electronics and control circuits, have contributed to the increasing use of induction machines in electrical systems. The use of induction machines is mainly due to their robustness, their power/weight ratio and their low cost of manufacture. Still, various defects may appear in such machines. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) based on the Fourier Transform (FT), is used as a method of analysis for many years for its simplicity and its relatively low computing time. However, it is ineffective in faults detection in the case of a small slip (harmonics too near to the fundamental). In addition, the fact that this method is based on the calculation of the FT, implicitly implies that the spectral properties of the signal are stationary. With the development of variable speed applications, the spectral characteristics of the stator current become non-stationary and the spectra are much richer in harmonics. To resolve these problems, we used in this paper, a time-frequency representation called Short Time Fourier Transform or STFT, giving therefore, additional information on changes of the frequencies with time in the case of a stator current signal. Several simulations are achieved in the aim of validating our approach.

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    Keywords: Induction Motor, Fault Diagnosis, Time-Frequency, Broken Rotor Bars, Signal Modeling.


    Diagnosis of Stator Winding Short Circuit Fault in Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Machine

    by K. Deepa, P. Vanaja Ranjan, S. Deepa


    Abstract - The objective of this paper is stator winding fault detection in three phase squirrel cage induction motor using Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA). A prototype model of the motor has been designed to study the stator winding faults through simulation and experimentation. Simulation has been carried out using MagNet 6.11.2. The simulated stator winding faults are inter-turn, phase-to-phase, open turn in a phase. The current signatures of simulation and hardware has been compared.

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    Keywords: Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (Three Phase SCIM), Finite Element Method (FEM), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Machine Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), Peak Variation Response (PVR).


    Improved Genetic Algorithm Identification of the Squirrel-Cage Induction Machine Parameters

    by Mohamed Moutchou, Hassan Mahmoudi


    Abstract - In this paper we propose a parameter identification technique of induction machine, based on optimization techniques by genetic algorithms. This technique allows us an accurate determination of the model parameters of the IM used in static regime as well as dynamic regime and offering a better representation of the IM. Genetic algorithms have proven their interest in solving various optimization problems. In this paper we express and formulate the identification problem in the form of optimization problem by correctly choosing the fitness function and constraints adapted to our case. The validation of the genetic algorithm identification, by simulation in Matlab, has proven its accuracy and effectiveness.

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    Keywords: Induction Machine, Identification, Genetic Algorithm, Optimization.


    BLDC Motor Control Using Simulink Matlab and PCI

    by Bambang Sujanarko, Bambang Sri Kaloko, Moch. Hasan


    Abstract - This paper presents the control of BLDC motor using Simulink Matlab and PCI as interfacing to hardware. The control based on six step method that have certain relations among rotor positions and winding currents. These relations convert to digital functions and simplify using K-Map. The result then implemented by basic digital elements on Simulink Matlab and used to trigger the inverter through PCI interfacing to produce six step waveform. Before feed to inverter, a PWM added to these signal as speed control of BLDC motor. Test experiment results show that the control can produce variable speed, voltage and current.

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    Keywords: BLDC, Control, Karnaugh, Simulink, PCI, Six Step, PWM.


    Analysis of DC Bus Fault and Line Faults on Voltage Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor

    by K. Mohanraj, S. Paramasivam, Subhransu Sekhar Dash, S. Ramprasad


    Abstract - Induction motors are commonly used in industry because of their reliable performance. Most of the induction motors are used in inverter based drives arrangements in industries. Although, Induction motors are highly reliable, they are vulnerable to numerous faults that can result severe damage in terms of production shutdowns, break down of the equipment and hazardous to the users. So it is required to detect faults at its preliminary level to avoid absolute failure of the system and also unpredicted production costs. In this paper, various faults that could occur at the voltage source inverter fed induction motor and their consequences on its performance are analysed.

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    Keywords: DC Link, Line to Ground Fault, Induction Motor, Inverter Switch Faults, Total Harmonic Distortion.


     Part A - Part B

    Time-Harmonic Modelling of Two-Winding Transformers Using the Finite Element Technique

    by Slavko Vujević, Dino Lovrić, Zdenko Balaž, Stipe Gaurina


    Abstract - In this paper a model of a two-winding transformer based on the finite element technique is proposed. The model employs a T-equivalent circuit of the transformer. Local systems of equations are derived both for the case of a single-phase transformer and for the case of the three-phase transformer. Three most often used transformer connections are observed in the case of the three-phase transformer. These models of a two-winding single-phase or three-phase transformers will be used in an electromagnetic model for analysis of ground fault current distribution based on the finite element technique.

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    Keywords: Transformer, Finite Element Method, Single-Phase, Three-Phase.


    Evaluation of Dispersion Models for Predicting Carbon Monoxide Concentrations from Motor Vehicles in a Metropolitan Area

    by P. Iodice, A. Senatore


    Abstract - The objective of this study is to provide a simulation of pollutant atmospheric dispersion from vehicles exhausts. This study evaluates two atmospheric Gaussian dispersion models against experimental results obtained near a roadway intersection located in an urban area; the agreement of measured and predicted CO concentrations is very acceptable. The paper shows also the computed spatial distribution of CO concentrations at the ground level emitted from motor vehicles in the urban area around the monitoring site. The data that have a direct impact on emissions of all motor vehicles were determined through integration of information provided by agencies and institutions, and employing the COPERT methodology. The models were also run to determine when the highest levels of CO would occur in a worst-case meteorological conditions scenario. The results indicate that the levels of CO are below the ambient air quality standard.

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    Keywords: Dispersion Models, Copert, Emission Inventory, Vehicular Emissions.


    Modelling of a Working Cycle of an Electro-Hydraulic Forklift in Matlab Simulink

    by Tatiana A. Minav, Denis Filatov, Juha Pyrhönen, Matti Pietola


    Abstract - Evaluation of an electro-hydraulic system of a working machine is carried out by a MatlabSimulink model. Modelling of the total forklift system is presented. Analysis and verification of the Simulink model with practical results are also performed for an axial piston hydraulic machine drive.Practical results are presented to demonstrate the cycle energy efficiency of the proposed electro-hydraulic forklift arrangement with potential energy recovery feature.

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    Keywords: Drives, Pumps, Permanent Magnet Machines, Energy Efficiency, Energy Recovery, Model.


    Forward Models with Cluster Validity Criteria Applied in Ballistic Reaching for Visual Servoing

    by D. F. T. Gamarra


    Abstract - This paper describes how a forward model could be applied in a manipulator robot to accomplish a reaching task. The forward model construction is optimized using validity indexes. The forward model has been implemented in the puma 560 robot manipulator in simulation and deals with the occlusion problem. So the robot can start with its end effector in any random position of the workspace, the forward model will find a position in which the end effector will be visible in the robot image plane using a Cartesian controller. Once the end effector is in a visible position an image based visual servoing algorithm is implemented for a reaching task. Results and simulations are shown to demonstrate the applicability of this proposed architecture for a visual servoing task.

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    Keywords: Forward Models, Visual Servoing, Cartesian Control, Motor Babbling, Cluster Validity Indexes.


    Optimal Design to Improve the Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

    by M. Muthu Krishnan, K. Marimuthu


    Abstract - Identifying optimum welding parameters for the dissimilar friction stir welding is always a challenging process due to different mechanical and thermal properties of the materials to be joined. The quality of the friction stir weld (FSW) depends upon various process parameters like welding speed, rotational speed, tool design, axial load etc.The current investigation aims in optimizing welding parameters using Taguchi design of experiments for the dissimilar friction stir welded cast and wrought aluminum alloys A319 and AA6063 respectively. An orthogonal array of L9 (33) was used for maximizing the tensile strength by optimizing the response variables welding speed, rotation speed and tool profile. Analysis of variance was conducted to validate the results. The validated output indicates that the best quality dissimilar weld with higher tensile strength is produced at the rotational speed of 1300 rpm and welding speed of 25mm/min using square profile tool.

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    Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys, Taguchi Method, ANOVA.


    ANN Modeling of Forced Convection Solar Air Heater

    by P. T. Saravanakumar, K. Mayilsamy, V. Boopathi Sabareesh


    Abstract - The design and applicability of solar air heating system require a satisfactory prediction of collector outlet air temperature and the useful energy delivered over a wide range of climate conditions. The ANN modeling is extensively used for this purpose. This article presents the results of a study carried out to compare the performance prediction by ANN. In this, an ambient temperature, solar intensity and air velocity were used as input layer, while the outputs are collector outlet temperature and first and second law efficiency of the solar air heater. The back propagation learning algorithm methods were used training and test the data. Comparison between predicted and experimental results indicates that the proposed ANN model can be used for estimating some parameters of SAHs with reasonable accuracy.

    Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved


    Keywords: ANN, SAH, First and Second Law Efficiency, Thermal Storage, Iron Scraps.


    Hybrid Control Scheme for Pursuing Performance of an Anti-Lock Brake System

    by Mohammed H. Al-Mola, Musa Mailah, Pakharuddin M. Samin, Abdul Halim Muhaimin


    Abstract - In this paper, a hybrid system acted as a component of the standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller along with an intelligent active force control (AFC) and tried to strengthen it by using the third method for tracking control for systems that work in a repetitive mode. Iterative learning (IL) control was the technique adapted to improve the dynamic system. This technique was developed and implemented in a hybrid scheme as a way to obtain the effective tracking required for slip ratio and stable interaction force between the tire and the road using an anti-lock brake system. The performance of the hybrid control scheme is compared with a PID controller and PID-AFC in terms of the ability to adapt for best slip ratio. It is found that the proposed control strategy copes well with the complexities of the high nonlinearity of the system and has done better than the other two controllers.

    Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved


    Keywords: Anti-Lock Braking System, Active Force Control, PID Controller, Iterative Learning Control, Wheel Slip.


    Multiloop PI Controller Tuning for Maximum Gasoline Yield in an Industrial Catalytic Cracking Unit

    by M. Mythily, D. Manamalli


    Abstract - Any control or optimization study of the FCC unit requires a process model which captures the major effects and interactions taking place in the unit. In this paper, the Dynamic behavior of the Simulated model (includes four lump Yield model to describe cracking kinetics) for the entire catalytic cracking unit of Petroleum Industry is analysed where the reactor riser is treated as an adiabatic plug flow reactor. A suitable controller is designed for this complex Industrial Process for the control of Reactor and Regenerator Temperature. The plugged Yield model is helpful in estimating the weight fraction of gasoline and other hydrocarbon products which is highly influenced by the variations in Reactor and Regenerator Temperature.

    Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved


    Keywords: FCCU, Four Lump Gasoline Yield Model, Multiloop PI Control.


    COMSOL Multiphysics Simulations of the Hydrogen Microwave Plasma Characteristics

    by M. El Haim, M. El Hammouti, H. Chatei, M. Atounti, M. El Bojaddaini


    Abstract - This paper presents the numerical simulation of a MPACVD (Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition) reactor used for diamond thin film deposition. A COMSOL MWP module, based on fluid plasma model, has been used to study impact of hydrogen pressure and incident microwave power on plasma discharge characteristics such as electron density, electron temperature and electric potential, at low pressure. It is clearly shown that the plasma volume increases either by augmenting power and keeping a constant pressure or by decreasing pressure while maintaining a constant power. It is also seen that uniformity of the plasma is obtained as the gas pressure is decreased, and that electron density increases significantly as a function of pressure and power. However, electron temperature varies in the opposite direction of the electron density, in the ranges of power and gas pressure studied. Results also indicate that electric potential increases by augmenting the incident power and maintaining a constant pressure or decreasing the pressure while keeping a constant power. Comparisons between model and experimental results are mainly satisfactory and support the fact that average electron density varies in the range of (1.1017−8.1017)𝑚−3 for the input power range (50W-300W) at a given pressure value (1.5Torr).

    Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved


    Keywords: COMSOL MWP Module, Microwave Plasma, Fluid Model, Low Pressure.


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